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Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT). Martin Weren, Hillcrest High School. TPDL participant 2011. ….TPDL? Teacher Professional Development in Languages, which involves… Language Learning In-class visits and support Pedagogy (EDPROFST, Uni of Auckland). Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT).

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Task based language teaching tblt

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Martin Weren, Hillcrest High School.

TPDL participant 2011.

….TPDL?

Teacher Professional Development in Languages, which involves…

Language Learning

In-class visits and support

Pedagogy (EDPROFST, Uni of Auckland)


Task based language teaching tblt1

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Overview:

Where have we come from as language teachers?

Where are we going?

What is TBLT?

What is TBLT not?

Acknowledgements


Task based language teaching tblt2

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Overview:

If during the course of this presentation you reflect on aspects of your own language teaching and ask yourself how you can do things differently and better, Martin will be a happy man.


Task based language teaching tblt3

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Where have we come from as language teachers?

In the beginning there was….


Task based language teaching tblt4

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Where have we come from as language teachers?

In the beginning there was….

Grammar-translation methodology


Task based language teaching tblt5

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Where have we come from as language teachers?

Grammar-translation methodology

Audio-lingual method


Task based language teaching tblt6

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Where have we come from as language teachers?

Grammar-translation methodology

Audio-lingual method

Communicative method


Task based language teaching tblt7

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Let’s assume that most of us in NZ are familiar with, and use, the communicative method (CLT).

What are some features/characteristics of this method?


Task based language teaching tblt8

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Let’s assume that most of us in NZ are familiar with, and use, the communicative method.

What are some features/characteristics of this method?

What are some of the benefits of CLT?


Task based language teaching tblt9

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

CLT draws on authentic materials and concepts that relate to the real world outside the classroom

CLT focuses on learners as active participants in their own learning. They become autonomous learners.


Task based language teaching tblt10

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

CLT takes the view that language exists for purposes of real communication in the real world.

Strategic competence is the ability to make up for gaps in knowledge by making the best use of resources available to them – they negotiate meanings.


Task based language teaching tblt11

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

This all sounds great.

So, what’s the problem?

Is there a problem?

Is there more than one problem?


Task based language teaching tblt12

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Or, why is TBLT being considered as an alternative to CLT?


Task based language teaching tblt13

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Or, why is TBLT being considered as an alternative to CLT?

“Weak” CLT came from residues of grammar-translation.


Task based language teaching tblt14

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Or, why is TBLT being considered as an alternative to CLT?

“Weak” CLT came from residues of grammar-translation.

Weak CLT techniques known as PPP (classic lesson structure).


Task based language teaching tblt15

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Presentation: The teacher draws learners’ attention to a specific form or structure.


Task based language teaching tblt16

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Practice: Once the rules have been made explicit, the grammatical structure is practised by various activities.


Task based language teaching tblt17

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Production: Learners engage in open practice, free of teacher control, where the focus is on meaning, such as a role play where the target structure or function has to be used.


Task based language teaching tblt18

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

A crucial weakness is that the approach tends to produce boring lessons.


Task based language teaching tblt19

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

That was “weak” CLT.

Is/was there another CLT?


Task based language teaching tblt20

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

(Hint: What’s the opposite of “weak”?)


Task based language teaching tblt21

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

STRONG CLT


Task based language teaching tblt22

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Stop right there!

Strong is not necessarily better than weak.


Task based language teaching tblt23

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

In “strong” CLT there was an emphasis on communication that negated any role for grammar; an anything-goes-as-long-as-you-get-the-message-across approach to 2LT.


Task based language teaching tblt24

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

In “strong” CLT there was a premise that all that was required for learners was input in the TL.

Purely communicative lessons can be very enjoyable for students, but….


Task based language teaching tblt25

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Purely communicative lessons can be very enjoyable for students, but….

…comprehensible 2L input is necessary, but insufficient.


Task based language teaching tblt26

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

So CLT, at least in its weakest and strongest forms, is found wanting.


Task based language teaching tblt27

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

So CLT, at least in its weakest and strongest forms, is found wanting.

A communicative approach is required which can reconcile fluency (with its implications for motivation and communication) with accuracy (with its implications for proficiency).


Task based language teaching tblt28

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Guess what comes next


Task based language teaching tblt29

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

So CLT, at least in its weakest and strongest forms, is found wanting.

TBLT makes this reconciliation a possibility


Task based language teaching tblt30

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)


Task based language teaching tblt31

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Learners learn to communicate by communicating.

The most effective way to teach a language is by engaging learners in real language use in the classroom.


Task based language teaching tblt32

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Scenarios that reflect real-world language use are set up by designing tasks – discussions, problems, games and so on – which require learners to use language for themselves.


Task based language teaching tblt33

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

A task is an activity in which a person engages in order to attain an objective, and which necessitates the use of language….


Task based language teaching tblt34

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

…Using language is a means to an end: by understanding language input and by producing language output i.e. by interacting with other people in real-life situations through the use of language, the goals that the learner has in mind can be (better) achieved.


Task based language teaching tblt35

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis says that for a LL activity to be called a task it must satisfy several criteria:


Task based language teaching tblt36

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis says that for a LL activity to be called a task it must satisfy several criteria:

The primary focus should be on “meaning” (learners should be mainly concerned with processing the semantic and pragmatic meaning of utterances)


Task based language teaching tblt37

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis says that for a LL activity to be called a task it must satisfy several criteria:

The primary focus should be on “meaning”;

There should be some kind of “gap” (i.e. a need to convey information, to express an opinion or to infer meaning)


Task based language teaching tblt38

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis says that for a LL activity to be called a task it must satisfy several criteria:

The primary focus should be on “meaning”;

There should be some kind of “gap”;

Learners should largely have to rely on their own resources (linguistic and non-linguistic) in order to complete the activity


Task based language teaching tblt39

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis says that for a LL activity to be called a task it must satisfy several criteria:

The primary focus should be on “meaning”;

There should be some kind of “gap”;

Learners should largely have to rely on their own resources (linguistic and non-linguistic) in order to complete the activity

There is a clearly defined outcome other than the use of language


Task based language teaching tblt40

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

There is a clearly defined outcome other than the use of language (i.e. the language serves as the means for achieving the outcome, not as an end in its own right).


Task based language teaching tblt41

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

The primary focus should be on “meaning”;

There should be some kind of “gap”;

Learners should largely have to rely on their own resources (linguistic and non-linguistic) in order to complete the activity

There is a clearly defined outcome other than the use of language (i.e. the language serves as the means for achieving the outcome, not as an end in its own right).


Task based language teaching tblt42

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

TBLT & the NZC

TBLT is only implicit in the new learning area.


Task based language teaching tblt43

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Ellis’ Principles:

In Principle 2, tasks are presented. Such tasks provide students with opportunities for interaction, thinking, problem solving, and genuine social interactions.


Task based language teaching tblt44

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

So….

How could this look in the classroom, or Give us some examples of tasks.


Task based language teaching tblt45

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

So….

How could this look in the classroom, or Give us some examples of tasks.

From Dave Willis and Jane Willis: “Doing Task-based Teaching”, OUP 2007


Task based language teaching tblt46

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

1 Earthquake safety


Task based language teaching tblt47

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

2 Text puzzle: profits and media


Task based language teaching tblt48

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

3 Family values


Task based language teaching tblt49

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

4 Guess what animal this is


Task based language teaching tblt50

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

5 “Moulin Rouge” movie trailer comparison


Task based language teaching tblt51

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

6 Junk we carry around with us


Task based language teaching tblt52

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

7 Giving directions


Task based language teaching tblt53

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

8 A new cafeteria


Task based language teaching tblt54

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

9 Radio talk show: Healthy teens?


Task based language teaching tblt55

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

10 Scientific presentation: Atmosphere and weather


Task based language teaching tblt56

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

11 Creating a newspaper


Task based language teaching tblt57

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

Give us some examples of tasks.

12 Fictitious marriage scenario


Task based language teaching tblt58

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

These notes are based on presentations from Dr Martin East (University of Auckland)


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