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Heat and Waves. Chapter 10 and 12 Review. Agenda:. Waves. Hooke’s Law Amplitude, period and frequency Types of waves Wave speed Interference Standing waves. Heat. Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium Heat transfer is energy transfer

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heat and waves

Heat and Waves

Chapter 10 and 12 Review

agenda
Agenda:

Waves

Hooke’s Law

Amplitude, period and frequency

Types of waves

Wave speed

Interference

Standing waves

Heat

  • Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium
  • Heat transfer is energy transfer
  • Specific heat and calorimetry
  • Latent heat
  • Heat transfer
temperature
Temperature
  • Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.
  • Temperature changes when energy is added or removed.
  • All objects attempt to attain thermal equilibrium by exchanging energy.
temperature continued
Temperature Continued
  • Matter expands as temperature increases. This is called thermal expansion.
  • Temperature is measured in (see your formula sheet for coversions):
    • degrees Fahrenheit
    • degrees Celsius
    • Kelvin
slide5
Heat
  • Thermal energy is the measure of the TOTAL kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance
  • Heat is the transfer of energy between substances.
  • Substances at different temperatures will transfer energy until they are equal.
  • Like all energy, heat can be measured in Joules.
heat and work
Heat and Work
  • Any energy change that cannot be accounted for by a change in potential or kinetic energy can be attributed to heat (internal energy) by way of friction.
specific heat
Specific Heat
  • Different materials require different amounts of energy to change their temperatures.
  • The energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius is its specific heat capacity.
calorimetry
Calorimetry
  • Specific heat capacity of substances can be determined by calorimetry.
  • The amount of energy gained by the water must equal the amount of energy lost by the substance.
energy during phase change
Energy during Phase Change
  • It takes energy to change phases. TEMPERATURE DOES NOT CHANGE DURING PHASE CHANGE.
  • Latent heat is the energy required to change phase.
  • Problem solving: when determining the energy required to change a substance from one temperature to another, you must consider if there is a phase change or not.
heat transfer
Heat Transfer
  • Conduction: heat transfer by direct contact between molecules
    • Conductors allow the flow of heat easily
    • Insulators inhibit the flow of heat.
  • Convection: heat transfer through a fluid
  • Radiation: energy transfer through electromagnetic waves.
vibration and waves
Vibration and Waves:
  • Hooke’s Law: the restoring force is proportional to the displacement of the object.
    • Displaced objects have potential energy.
  • Objects vibrate in simple harmonic motion if they behave according to Hooke’s Law (pendulums and mass-spring systems)
measuring simple harmonic motion
Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Amplitude: the maximum displacement of the object
  • Period: time for one complete cycle (Seconds)
  • Frequency: how many cycles completed per second (Hz)
pendulums and mass spring systems
Pendulums and Mass-Spring Systems
  • Period of a pendulum depends on pendulum length.
  • Period of a mass spring system depends on mass and spring stiffness.
wave types
Wave Types
  • Mechanical waves disturb a physical medium. Non-mechanical waves, like light, do not need a medium to travel through.
  • Pulse waves are a single peak traveling. Periodic waves are repeated regular motions.
waves continued
Waves Continued
  • Transverse waves are perpendicular to wave motion.
  • Longitudinal waves are parallel to wave motion
wave speed
Wave Speed
  • The speed of a wave is constant for any given medium.
  • Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional.
interference
Interference
  • When waves collide with each other, it is called interference.
  • If the waves peaks are in the same direction, they add together for constructive interference.
  • If the peaks are in opposite directions, they subtract for destructive interference.
standing waves
Standing Waves
  • Standing waves can be generated only at certain wavelengths relative to the length of the medium (L).
    • 2L
    • L
    • (2/3)L
    • (1/2)L
    • (2/5)L
    • etc.
homework
Homework
  • Finish study guide and check solutions.
  • Review all slides, and get a good night’s sleep.
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