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Heat and Waves. Chapter 10 and 12 Review. Agenda:. Waves. Hooke’s Law Amplitude, period and frequency Types of waves Wave speed Interference Standing waves. Heat. Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium Heat transfer is energy transfer

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Heat and waves

Heat and Waves

Chapter 10 and 12 Review


Agenda
Agenda:

Waves

Hooke’s Law

Amplitude, period and frequency

Types of waves

Wave speed

Interference

Standing waves

Heat

  • Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium

  • Heat transfer is energy transfer

  • Specific heat and calorimetry

  • Latent heat

  • Heat transfer


Temperature
Temperature

  • Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.

  • Temperature changes when energy is added or removed.

  • All objects attempt to attain thermal equilibrium by exchanging energy.


Temperature continued
Temperature Continued

  • Matter expands as temperature increases. This is called thermal expansion.

  • Temperature is measured in (see your formula sheet for coversions):

    • degrees Fahrenheit

    • degrees Celsius

    • Kelvin


Heat

  • Thermal energy is the measure of the TOTAL kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance

  • Heat is the transfer of energy between substances.

  • Substances at different temperatures will transfer energy until they are equal.

  • Like all energy, heat can be measured in Joules.


Heat and work
Heat and Work

  • Any energy change that cannot be accounted for by a change in potential or kinetic energy can be attributed to heat (internal energy) by way of friction.


Specific heat
Specific Heat

  • Different materials require different amounts of energy to change their temperatures.

  • The energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius is its specific heat capacity.


Calorimetry
Calorimetry

  • Specific heat capacity of substances can be determined by calorimetry.

  • The amount of energy gained by the water must equal the amount of energy lost by the substance.


Energy during phase change
Energy during Phase Change

  • It takes energy to change phases. TEMPERATURE DOES NOT CHANGE DURING PHASE CHANGE.

  • Latent heat is the energy required to change phase.

  • Problem solving: when determining the energy required to change a substance from one temperature to another, you must consider if there is a phase change or not.


Heat transfer
Heat Transfer

  • Conduction: heat transfer by direct contact between molecules

    • Conductors allow the flow of heat easily

    • Insulators inhibit the flow of heat.

  • Convection: heat transfer through a fluid

  • Radiation: energy transfer through electromagnetic waves.


Vibration and waves
Vibration and Waves:

  • Hooke’s Law: the restoring force is proportional to the displacement of the object.

    • Displaced objects have potential energy.

  • Objects vibrate in simple harmonic motion if they behave according to Hooke’s Law (pendulums and mass-spring systems)


Measuring simple harmonic motion
Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion

  • Amplitude: the maximum displacement of the object

  • Period: time for one complete cycle (Seconds)

  • Frequency: how many cycles completed per second (Hz)


Pendulums and mass spring systems
Pendulums and Mass-Spring Systems

  • Period of a pendulum depends on pendulum length.

  • Period of a mass spring system depends on mass and spring stiffness.


Wave types
Wave Types

  • Mechanical waves disturb a physical medium. Non-mechanical waves, like light, do not need a medium to travel through.

  • Pulse waves are a single peak traveling. Periodic waves are repeated regular motions.


Waves continued
Waves Continued

  • Transverse waves are perpendicular to wave motion.

  • Longitudinal waves are parallel to wave motion


Wave speed
Wave Speed

  • The speed of a wave is constant for any given medium.

  • Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional.


Interference
Interference

  • When waves collide with each other, it is called interference.

  • If the waves peaks are in the same direction, they add together for constructive interference.

  • If the peaks are in opposite directions, they subtract for destructive interference.


Standing waves
Standing Waves

  • Standing waves can be generated only at certain wavelengths relative to the length of the medium (L).

    • 2L

    • L

    • (2/3)L

    • (1/2)L

    • (2/5)L

    • etc.


Homework
Homework

  • Finish study guide and check solutions.

  • Review all slides, and get a good night’s sleep.


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