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# Heat and Waves - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Heat and Waves. Chapter 10 and 12 Review. Agenda:. Waves. Hooke’s Law Amplitude, period and frequency Types of waves Wave speed Interference Standing waves. Heat. Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium Heat transfer is energy transfer

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### Heat and Waves

Chapter 10 and 12 Review

Waves

Hooke’s Law

Amplitude, period and frequency

Types of waves

Wave speed

Interference

Standing waves

Heat

• Temperature, measuring temperature, and thermal equilibriium

• Heat transfer is energy transfer

• Specific heat and calorimetry

• Latent heat

• Heat transfer

• Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.

• Temperature changes when energy is added or removed.

• All objects attempt to attain thermal equilibrium by exchanging energy.

• Matter expands as temperature increases. This is called thermal expansion.

• Temperature is measured in (see your formula sheet for coversions):

• degrees Fahrenheit

• degrees Celsius

• Kelvin

• Thermal energy is the measure of the TOTAL kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance

• Heat is the transfer of energy between substances.

• Substances at different temperatures will transfer energy until they are equal.

• Like all energy, heat can be measured in Joules.

• Any energy change that cannot be accounted for by a change in potential or kinetic energy can be attributed to heat (internal energy) by way of friction.

• Different materials require different amounts of energy to change their temperatures.

• The energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius is its specific heat capacity.

• Specific heat capacity of substances can be determined by calorimetry.

• The amount of energy gained by the water must equal the amount of energy lost by the substance.

• It takes energy to change phases. TEMPERATURE DOES NOT CHANGE DURING PHASE CHANGE.

• Latent heat is the energy required to change phase.

• Problem solving: when determining the energy required to change a substance from one temperature to another, you must consider if there is a phase change or not.

• Conduction: heat transfer by direct contact between molecules

• Conductors allow the flow of heat easily

• Insulators inhibit the flow of heat.

• Convection: heat transfer through a fluid

• Radiation: energy transfer through electromagnetic waves.

• Hooke’s Law: the restoring force is proportional to the displacement of the object.

• Displaced objects have potential energy.

• Objects vibrate in simple harmonic motion if they behave according to Hooke’s Law (pendulums and mass-spring systems)

• Amplitude: the maximum displacement of the object

• Period: time for one complete cycle (Seconds)

• Frequency: how many cycles completed per second (Hz)

• Period of a pendulum depends on pendulum length.

• Period of a mass spring system depends on mass and spring stiffness.

• Mechanical waves disturb a physical medium. Non-mechanical waves, like light, do not need a medium to travel through.

• Pulse waves are a single peak traveling. Periodic waves are repeated regular motions.

• Transverse waves are perpendicular to wave motion.

• Longitudinal waves are parallel to wave motion

• The speed of a wave is constant for any given medium.

• Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional.

• When waves collide with each other, it is called interference.

• If the waves peaks are in the same direction, they add together for constructive interference.

• If the peaks are in opposite directions, they subtract for destructive interference.

• Standing waves can be generated only at certain wavelengths relative to the length of the medium (L).

• 2L

• L

• (2/3)L

• (1/2)L

• (2/5)L

• etc.

• Finish study guide and check solutions.

• Review all slides, and get a good night’s sleep.