Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 38

GEOHAZARDS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 142 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

Natural and Human-Induced Extreme Events. GEOHAZARDS. Volcanoes Earthquakes and Tsunamis Landslides/Mudslides. CLIMATIC HAZARDS. Floods Drought Hurricanes/Cyclones. INDUSTRIAL/OTHER HAZARDS. Oil Spills Nuclear Accidents Meteor Impacts.

Download Presentation

GEOHAZARDS

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Natural and Human-Induced Extreme Events

GEOHAZARDS

  • Volcanoes

  • Earthquakes and Tsunamis

  • Landslides/Mudslides

CLIMATIC HAZARDS

  • Floods

  • Drought

  • Hurricanes/Cyclones

INDUSTRIAL/OTHER HAZARDS

  • Oil Spills

  • Nuclear Accidents

  • Meteor Impacts

Phuket, Thailand: Before and after the 2004 tsunami


Slide2 l.jpg

Hazards & Vulnerabilty Research Institute (2006). 2005 U.S. Hazard Losses. University of South Carolina.

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers


Slide4 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide5 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide6 l.jpg

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers


Slide7 l.jpg

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers

Abramovitz, JN (2001). Unnatural Disasters. Worldwatch Institute.


Slide8 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide9 l.jpg

Abramovitz, JN (2001). Unnatural Disasters. Worldwatch Institute.

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide10 l.jpg

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers


Slide11 l.jpg

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers


Slide12 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide13 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Cost breakdown of disasters l.jpg

Cost Breakdown of Disasters


Slide16 l.jpg

UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2006). 2005 Disasters in Numbers


Slide17 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide18 l.jpg

Abramovitz, JN (2001). Unnatural Disasters. Worldwatch Institute.


Slide20 l.jpg

  • Hurricane Katrina:

  • $125 billion

  • 1833 lives lost

Hazards & Vulnerabilty Research Institute (2006). 2005 U.S. Hazard Losses. University of South Carolina.


Slide21 l.jpg

Sapir et al., (2004). Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters.


Slide22 l.jpg

Natural and Human-Induced Extreme Events

  • Extreme events, whether natural or human-induced, can cause significant environmental change, not to mention their devastating impacts on peoples’ lives

  • In 2005, there was an 18% rise in disasters that killed 91 900 people

  • There were 360 natural disasters in 2005 compared to 305 in 2004: the number of floods increased by 57% in 2005 and droughts by about 47%

  • The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami accounted for 92%, and the 2005 South Asian earthquake, for 81% of the deaths in each respective year

Sources: CRED 2006: UN/ISDR 2006


Slide23 l.jpg

Volcanoes

  • About 550 volcanoes have erupted in the Earth’s recorded history and an equivalent number of dormant volcanoes have only erupted in the past 10 000 years

  • On any given day, about ten volcanoes are actively erupting

  • Explosive eruptions give little warning, while effusive eruptions, which send out gently flowing lava, allow time for people to escape

Sources: Camp 2000; Francis 1993; NGDC 2004


Slide24 l.jpg

Mapping volcanic risk in Africa

In this example, high population densities are also associated with areas with active volcanic activity


Slide25 l.jpg

Earthquakes and Tsunamis

  • According to long-term records (since about 1900), we can expect about 18 major earthquakes (7.0 - 7.9 on the Richter scale) and one great earthquake (8.0 or above) in any given year

  • The number of earthquakes and tsunamis resulting in fatalities has increased approximately in proportion to global populations

  • The growth of giant urban cities near regions of known seismic hazard is a new experiment for life on the Earth

  • Tsunamis are a threat to life and property for all coastal residents

Sources: NEIC 2003; USGS 2004; UNEP 2005 (GEO 2004/2005)


Slide26 l.jpg

Mapping seismic risk in Africa

In this example, high population densities are also associated with areas with active seismic activity


Slide27 l.jpg

Landslides and Mudslides

  • Worldwide, thousands of people die every year from landslides and mudslides

  • In the United Sates alone, they cause an estimated US$1 billion in damage and kill 25 to 50 people every year

  • Earthquakes, volcanoes, and a number of types of weather events can trigger landslides, which are characterized by lethal mixtures of water, rocks, and mud

  • The two largest landslides in the world in the 20th century occurred at Mount St. Helens, Washington, in 1980 and at Usoy, Tajikistan, in 1911

  • The deadliest landslide in the 20th century was also the result of an earthquake, which occurred in western Iran on 20 June 1990. It caused 40 000–50 000 deaths

Sources: NEIC 2003; UNEP 2005 (GEO 2004/2005)


Slide28 l.jpg

Avalanche wiped out the city of Yungay

1970: Earthquake wipes out Yungay, claims 18,000 lives


Slide29 l.jpg

Floods

  • Worldwide, the number of major flood disasters has grown significantly, from 6 cases in the 1950s to 26 in the 1990s

  • From 1971 to 1995, floods affected more than 1 500 million people worldwide

  • In the most calamitous storm surge, a flood in Bangladesh in April 1991 killed at least 138 000 people and left 10 million homeless

Sources: UN-ISDR 2004; DFO 2004; Wikipedia 2006


Slide30 l.jpg

Mozambique under water

2000: Due to severe flooding, half a million people were made homeless and 700 lost their lives

22 August 1999: Mozambique under normal conditions

1 March 2000: Mozambique under water


Slide31 l.jpg

Hurricanes and Cyclones

  • Scientists predict that global warming will cause warmer ocean temperatures and associated increased moisture in the atmosphere - two variables that work to power hurricanes. As a result, more intense hurricanes that can cause even more damage when they hit land are predicted

  • Large parts of densely populated coastal areas are subject to the inundation caused by hurricane storm surges; on numerous occasions, they have experienced heavy economic losses from these events

Sources: Henderson-Sellers et al. 1998


Slide32 l.jpg

Drought

  • A drought is a period of dryness, especially when prolonged, causing extensive damage to crops or preventing their successful growth

  • Climate change will potentially increase the likelihood of droughts in dry and semi-arid regions. There is already evidence that a number of such regions have experienced declines in rainfall

  • Throughout history, various parts of the globe have suffered drought and subsequent famine, resulting in huge humanitarian and economic losses

Sources: Wikipedia 2006; UNEP 2005


Slide33 l.jpg

Drop in water level: Lake Mead

Drought in the Western United States

2000

2004

PhotoView

18 meters

Hoover Dam and Lake Mead


Slide34 l.jpg

Golf courses along Lake Mead

New Golf Courses since 2001


Technological intentional hazards l.jpg

Technological & Intentional Hazards

  • 123 plants in 24 States where a chemical release of dangerous materials could threaten more than one million people.

    (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004)

  • 15,000 high-risk chemical facilities proximate to tens of millions of citizens


Global background context l.jpg

Global Background Context

  • “There has been a rapid escalation in the incidence of severe disaster events in recent decades.

  • Total reported global costs have risen 15-fold over the past five decades,

  • While numbers of people affected tripled between the 1970s and 1990s.”

    (ProVention Consortium, “Measuring Mitigation,” 2004)

  • No Light At The End of The Tunnel – Here or Abroad


National science and technology council 1996 on natural hazards l.jpg

National Science and Technology Council, 1996on Natural Hazards

“Future prospects are sobering.

  • Continued U.S. population growth,

  • Increased urbanization and concentration in hazard-prone coastal areas,

  • Increased capital and physical plant,

  • Accelerated deterioration of the urban infrastructure, and

  • Emerging but unknown new vulnerabilities posed by technological advance

  • Virtually guarantee that economic losses from natural hazards will continue to rise throughout the early part of the coming century.

  • Losses of $100 billion from individual events, and perhaps unprecedented loss of life, loom in our future.”


Underlying problems in 1994 1995 and now l.jpg

Underlying Problems in 1994/1995And Now

  • We Build in Floodplains

  • We Destroy Wetlands

  • We Build Along Earthquake Faults

  • We Build On The Coast

  • We Build On Alluvial Fans (spilling from mountains)

  • We Build In and Near Forests Susceptible to Wildfires

  • We Try To Control Nature

  • We Don’t Zone, Code, Build, Maintain (Aging Infrastructure), Inspect and Enforce Appropriately Enough

  • Thus – Disasters Are A Growth Business


  • Login