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The War of 1812: “Mr . Madison’s War” “ The Second War for Independence” OR ? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WI TH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER. The War of 1812: “Mr . Madison’s War” “ The Second War for Independence” OR ?. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TODAY: WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 1812?

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The War of 1812: “Mr . Madison’s War” “ The Second War for Independence” OR ?

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EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

WITH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER

The War of 1812:“Mr. Madison’s War”“The Second War for Independence”OR ?


ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

TODAY:

WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 1812?

WAS JAMES MADISON A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? WERE FEDERALISTS REALLY LIBERAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS?

BROAD:

HOW AND WHEN DID U.S. NATIONALISM ARISE?

WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?


Frq prompt:

With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison?

Your “OI” must include:

All relevant primary sources assigned

all assigned readings AND MY LECTURES/ PPS

No internet crap


  • BACKGROUND/ REVIEW

  • FROM 1807, NAPOLEONIC WARS PUT U.S. IN MIDDLE OF WAR BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FRANCE (AGAIN!)

  • 1807, BRITISH ORDERS IN COUNCIL  NAPOLEON’S EDICT OF MILAN  BOTH ENGLISH AND FRANCE SEIZED U.S. MERCHANT SHIPS

  • 1807 – 11 BRITAIN IMPRESSED > 6,000 U.S. SEAMEN

  • ALSO 1807, CHESAPEAKE-LEOPARD AFFAIR


  • 1807 – JEFFERSON’S EMBARGO ACT

  • DEVASTATED U.S. ECONOMY IN THE SHORT RUN, BUT IN THE LONG RUN  INDUSTRIALIZATION N.E., OHIO

  • JEFFERSON’S POLICIES  HAMILTON’S

  • 1808 – MADISON (D-R) ELECTED PRESIDENT, DESPITE UNPOPULARITY OF EMBARGO

  • 1809 – NON-INTERCOURSE ACT – EMBARGO ONLY ON TRADE WITH BRITAIN AND FRANCE

  • NEITHER BRITAIN NOR FRANCE CAPITULATED TO EITHER EMBARGO ACT OR NON-INTERCOURSE ACT


  • JAMES MADISON – “FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION,” AUTHOR OF BILL OF RIGHTS , FEDERALIST PAPERS, AND VIRGINIA RESOLVES, SECRETARY OF STATE, FOURTH PRESIDENT

  • IN THE VIRGINIA RESOLVES, MADISON ADVOCATED COMPACT THEORY AND STRICT CONSTRUCTION


  • MADISON’S ECONOMIC POLICY:

  • SUPPORTED NON-INTERCOURSE ACT

  • DID NOT SUPPORTED MACON’S BILL NO. 2 – LIFTED EMBARGO ENTIRELY BUT THREATENED TO RESTORE IT IF BRITAIN OR FRANCE DIDN’T STOP SEIZING U.S. SHIPS

  • NAPOLEON’S PLOY  MADISON RESTORED EMBARGO ON BRITAIN

  • STRICT CONSTRUCTION?

  • BRITAIN KEPT SEIZING U.S. SHIPS


  • PROVOCATIONS ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER (?)

  • RECALL PONTIAC’S UPRISING, NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR – REALLY ONE LONG WAR BETWEEN INDIANS IN N.W. AND WHITE INVADERS

  • RECALL TREATY OF GREENVILLE – 1795

EVERYTHING N.W. OF THIS LINE =

INDIAN

TERRITORY


BUT WESTWARD HO! WHITE FOLKS!


  • 1809 – TREATY OF FORT WAYNE. WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY INVITED SELECTED INDIAN

  • CHIEFS TO FT. WAYNE TO SIGN TREATY CEDING 3 MILLION ACRES TO U.S

  • MADISON OPPOSED THIS!

  • TECUMSEH, SHAWNEE GENERAL, AND HIS BROTHER TENKSWATAWA (“THE PROPHET”)

  • TECUMSEH: ALL INDIAN LANDS OWNED BY ALL TRIBES IN COMMON (JOSEPH BRANT)

  • TENKSWATAWA = INDIAN “PURITAN” – URGED REJECTION OF WHITE CULTURE (INCLUDING X’IANITY AND LIQUOR)


  • HARRISON, TECUMSEH AND TENSKWATAWA (“THE PROPHET

  • BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE, NOV. 7, 1811 – WHO WON?

  • IF YOU CONSIDER RETREATING, AND HAVING TO RESIGN FROM THE ARMY TO AVOID COURT MARTIAL WINNING, HARRISON DID (WELL, HE DID BURN DOWN THE PROPHET’S EMPTY VILLAGE!)


  • TECUMSEH ORGANIZED CONFEDERATION OF MOST TRIBES TO RESIST TREATY OF FT. WAYNE

  • BRITAIN AIDED TECUMSEH (EXAMPLE – HE WAS IN CANADA WHEN BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE OCCURRED)

  • NEWS OF BATTLE 

  • ANGER AT BRITAIN FOR

  • “INSTIGATING INDIANS”


THE WAR LASTED UNTIL 1813 = WESTERN FRONT IN WAR OF 1812


  • A BRANCH OF THE D-R PARTY – MADISON RESISTED THEM!

  • ARGUED FOR WAR ON BEHALF OF FRONTIER PEOPLE & IN DEFENSE OF U.S. SOVEREIGNTY

War Hawks

THE TWO TO REMEMBER – HENRY CLAY (KY) AND JOHN C. CALHOUN (S.C.)


CLAY – “THE GREAT COMPROMISER” – 3 X SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE, SECRETARY OF STATE, SENATOR

CALHOUN – SENATOR, HOUSE MEMBER, VICE PRESIDENT, SECRETARY OF WAR


  • THOMAS JEFFERSON, WAR HAWK?

  • “The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent.“ JEFFERSON, 1812

  • WAS U.S. EXPANSIONISM A/ THE MOTIVE FOR THE WAR?


  • THE HENRY LETTERS – MADISON BOUGHT FOR $50,000 -- WAS MADISON TRULY DECEIVED?

  • JUNE 1, 1812 – MADISON SPEECH TO CONGRESS LISTS GRIEVANCES AGAINST BRITAIN, INCLUDING HENRY LETTERS 

  • SAME DAY, CONGRESS DECLARED WAR ON GREAT BRITAIN

  • FIRST TIME U.S. DECLARED WAR

  • NARROWEST WAR VOTE IN U.S. HISTORY

  • House= 79-49, Senate= 19-13

  • NO FEDERALISTS VOTED FOR THE WAR

  • BRITAIN HAD REVOKED ORDERS IN COUNCIL TWO DAYS EARLIER (HAD TAPERED OFF SEIZURES BEFORE


ELECTION OF 1812

18 STATES – ONE OHIO ELECTOR DIDN’T VOTE

* IN CONN., DEL., GA., N.Y., S.C. & VT., ELECTORS WERE STILL APPOINTED BY STATE LEGISLATURES


  • THE WAR -- JUNE 18, 1812 – FEBRUARY 18, 1815

  • U.S. UNPREPARED -- > 30,000 REGULAR ARMY, MADISON PLANNED TO USE MOSTLY STATE MILITIAS

    • – NO DICE – MILITIAS RELUCTANT TO FIGHT OUTSIDE OWN STATES, N.E. STATES (FEDERALISTS) WOULDN’T SEND MILITIAS

  • FIRST TWO CAMPAIGNS = UNSUCCESSFUL INVASIONS OF CANADA (FROM MICHIGAN AND NEW YORK) SUMMER OF 1812

  • RESULT – BRITISH TOOK DETROIT, CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE


BRITISH BLOCKADE

N.B. BRITAIN DIDN’T TOTALLY CUT OFF NEW ENGLAND


OVERVIEW:

ONLY CLEAR VICTORIES – AGAINST INDIANS IN N.W. AND SOUTH, AND AGAINST BRITISH ON LAKE ERIE + BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS

WAR BECAME POINTLESS FOR BOTH SIDES BY 1815

BUT MANY AMERICAN LEGENDS, AND U.S. NATIONALISM RESULT


  • SIGNIFICANT BATTLES: WEST

  • BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE AKA BATTLE OF PUT-IN BAY, SEPTEMBER 1813 – U.S. NAVY, UNDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY, TOOK CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE – ENDED PROSPECT OF BRITISH INVASION IN N.W.

“WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND HE IS OURS”

HIS STANDARD WAS “DON’T GIVE UP THE SHIP” = DYING WORDS OF CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE OF THE CHESAPEAKE – CAPTURED BY

BRITISH H.M.S. SHANNON OFF NOVA

SCOTIA, EARLIER IN 1813


SAMPLER - LAWRENCE = SENTIMENTAL HERO


  • BATTLE OF THE THAMES, OCTOBER 1813 – WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON DEFINITELY DEFEATED TECUMSEH HERE

 NO MORE PROBLEMS WITH INDIANS IN N.W.!


  • SIGNIFICANT BATTLE: ATLANTIC

JULY 1812 – U.S.S. CONSTITUTION “OLD IRONSIDES” – DEFEATS AND BURNS H.M.S GUERRIERE


  • SIGNIFICANT BATTLES, CHESAPEAKE

  • BATTLE OF BLADENSBURG, AUGUST, 1814 – MILTIA COULDN’T STOP BRITISH INVASION OF WASHINGTON  SACK OF WASHINGTON, BURNING OF WHITE HOUSE


FIRST LADY DOLLEY MADISON SAVED MANY WHITE HOUSE VALUABLES, SUCH AS G. STUART PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON

A HEROINE! AND SO WE HONOR HER BY NAMING CHEAP SNACK CAKES AFTER HER


  • “BATTLE” OF BALTIMORE (FT. MC HENRY), AUGUST, 1814 – “BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR” INSPIRED FRANCIS SCOTT TO WRITE “THE DEFENSE OF FT. MC HENRY”


SET TO THE TUNE OF THE ANACREONTIC SONG, IT BECAME OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM IN 1931

“And long may the sons of Anacreon intwine the myrtle of Venus with Bacchus' vine.”


BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG (LAKE CHAMPLAIN), SEPTEMBER 1814 – VICTORY UNDER COMMANDER THOMAS MC DONOUGH = ANOTHER HERO!


  • SIGNIFICANT BATTLES – SOUTH

  • BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND, MARCH 1814

  • REALLY A SEPARATE WAR WITH CREEKS

  • GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON DEFEATED CREEK “RED STICKS” - INSPIRED BY TECUMSEH

  • TREATY OF FORT JACKSON – CREEKS CEDED THEIR LANDS IN ALABAMA AND GEORGIA


JACKSON ACCEPTING SURRENDER OF CREEK GENERAL WILLIAM WEATHERFORD – WHOM JACKSON GREATLY ADMIRED


  • BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS, JANUARY 1815

  • TREATY OF GHENT, ENDING WAR, HAD BEEN SIGNED DECEMBER 23, 1814 – BUT NEWS HADN’T REACHED AMERICA

  • TROOPS UNDER JACKSON DEFEATED BRITISH SIEGE OF NEW ORLEANS

  • IN FACT, A SMALL BATTLE (ONLY ≈ 4,000 BRITISH SAILORS AND MARINES INVOLVED)

  • BUT JACKSON’S PR = > 25,000 BRITISH TROOPS


“THE HERO OF NEW ORLEANS”


JACKSON SQUARE, NEW ORLEANS


  • POLITICS – THE HARTFORD CONVENTION, DECEMBER 1814 – JANUARY 1815

  • NEW ENGLAND FEDERALISTS CONSIDERED SECESSION – OPPOSED TO “MR. MADISON’S WAR AND EMBARGO


  • HARTFORD CONVENTION OFFICIAL PROPOSALS INCLUDED

  • REPEAL 3/5 CLAUSE (REDUCE SOUTHERN REPRESENTATION IN HOUSE OF REP.)

  • NO SUCCESSIVE PRESIDENTS FROM SAME STATE (BREAK “VIRGINIA DYNASTY”)

  • NO MORE EMBARGOES

  • CONSIDERED BUT REJECTED SECESSION

  • ALAS FOR THE FEDERALISTS, NEWS OF JACKSON’S “MAJOR VICTORY” AT NEW ORLEANS (AND TREATY ENDING WAR  ENORMOUS POPULAR ENTHUSIASM FOR THE WAR


FEDERALIST PARTY DISCREDITED


  • EFFECTS OF WAR OF 1812

  • 2260 battle deaths, 4,505 wounded

  • OUR CAPITAL IN RUINS

  • U.S. TREASURY DEPLETED

  • NO TERRITORY GAINED FROM BRITAIN

  • BUT . . .


  • POPULAR PERCEPTION = “WE WON A WAR AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN” – “SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

  • U.S. IDENTITY AND NATIONALISM

  • FEDERALIST PARTY – DONE – NO MORE LINGERING LOYALTIES TO BRITAIN


  • NATIONALISM:

  • HEROES AND HEROINES, LEGENDS, MYTHS

  • TWO HEROS  PRESIDENTS: JACKSON & WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON

  • NATIONAL ANTHEM


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