1. COMMON SENSE
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1. COMMON SENSE. Presents the colonists with an argument for independence from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided. COMMON SENSE. Thomas Paine in Jan. 1776….. Came to America in 1774 from England and got caught up in the Revolutionary Spirit

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1. COMMON SENSE

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1 common sense

1. COMMON SENSE

  • Presents the colonists with an argument for independence from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided


1 common sense

COMMON SENSE

  • Thomas Paine in Jan. 1776…..

  • Came to America in 1774 from England and got caught up in the Revolutionary Spirit

  • Wrote a 50 page pamphlet that would convince many Americans that King George was a tyrant and declaring independence from Great Britain was our only choice.


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COMMON SENSE

In the following pages I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense……The sun never shined on a cause of greater worth….

…Everything that is right or natural pleads for separation…”TIS TIME TO PART”…

…The king has shown himself an enemy to liberty and discovered a thirst for arbitrary power.

Reconciliation and ruin are nearly related….TIS TIME TO PART


Doi 2

DOI-2

2nd CONTINENTAL CONGRESS

  • Would stay together throughout the war and became our first government of the United States.

  • Wrote Declaration of Independence: Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston

  • 56 signers sacrificed their lives, fortunes and honor when they signed the DOI

  • King George charged these men with “treason”.


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Social contract

THOMAS JEFFERSON

  • Plantation owner from Virginia

  • Renaissance man

  • Owned slaves

  • Representative to the 2nd Continental Congress from Virginia

  • Father of the Declaration of Independence.


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2. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

  • 1.New theory of government (democracy---people rule)

  • 2. Grievances (27) listed against King George

  • 3.Declaration of War

  • Become a separate Nation


27 grievances

27 grievances

  • He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our People.

  • He has erected a Multitude of New Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

  • For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World.

  • For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us.

  • For imposing Taxes on us without our consent.


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3 ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS

Rights Colonists possessed as English citizens from the English Bill of Rights in 1689. They believed King George and Parliament had violated these.

  • Trial by Jury

  • Due Process

  • Private Property

  • No Cruel Punishment

  • No excessive bail or fines

  • Right to bear arms

  • Right to petition


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UNITED STATES BILL OF RIGHTS

Not only did we fight for our independence, but we fought for rights we believed we had as Englishmen. These rights would be included in our Constitution in 1791 as the first 10 Amendments or Bill of Rights.

  • Right to bear arms

  • Right to petition

  • Freedom of speech

  • Freedom of the press

  • Freedom of religion

  • Trial by jury

  • Due process

  • Private property

  • No unreasonable search and seizure

  • No cruel punishment


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Approved July 4th, officially signed Aug. 2nd, 1776

Thomas Jefferson,“Father of DOI”, part of the 2nd Continental Congress—part of a committee

56 signers of the DOI were considered traitors to England and a bounty was placed on their heads…..

  • Ultimate goal:

  • To generate support for American cause

  • Propaganda

  • Audiences:

  • Loyalists and other Americans who didn’t care.

  • British people

  • King George and Parliament

  • Other European countries

The Declaration of Independence

King George would view the DOI as an illegal document…

  • Jefferson introduces a new theory of government:

  • Social Contract theory

    • Power of govt. comes from the people

    • Govt. must protect certain rights

    • People can alter or change the govt.

    • Democracy—people rule

  • Statement of intent--why Americans wanted to separate from England…..

    • Lists grievances against King George

    • Lists rights and freedoms violated by England


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4. SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY

  • John Locke was an English philosopher during the late 1680s.

  • He wrote several books on how people should be governed.

  • His ideas influenced Thomas Jefferson.

  • The power of government comes from the people….We give the government certain powers to force people to do things for the common good of the community……..If the government does not reflect the will of the people, than the people can change it…….


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SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY

Declaration of Independence

The people have the right to abolish an oppressive government and establish a new one.

All men are endowed with certain unalienable rights among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

John Locke

A government’s power comes from the consent of the people.

All people are born free and equal with natural rights to life, liberty and property

Authority of Government

Natural Rights

To preserve himself, his liberty and property

Government of laws not man

Men being by nature all free, equal and independent

To secure these rights

History of the present King of England is repeated injuries

All men are created equal

Purpose of Government

Limited Government

Equality


Loyalist patriot

Loyalist/Patriot

5. PatriotsAmericans who supported the Rebels…..controlled the countryside.

LoyalistsAmericans who supported England…controlled the cities…


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DOWNFALL OF KING GEORGE

King George’s statue is torn down by Patriots in New York City after the Declaration of Independence is signed by the 2nd Continental Congress


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7. CONTINENTAL ARMY

  • First US Army made up of volunteers, militias and Minutemen.

  • George Washington chosen as the first Commanding General.

  • Not an army of professionals but mostly farmers.

  • Lacked the discipline of a professional army at first….

  • Lacked resources, men weren’t paid and some quit after the first few battles.

  • 2nd Continental Congress lacked $$$$ to supply army…


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British vs. United States

FactorsGreat BritainUnited States

Population

Manufacturing

Money

Army

Leaders

Geography

Navy

Will to Fight

Approximately 12 million

Highly developed

Richest country in the world

Large, well trained army plus Hessians

Few officers capable of leading

Strange land---difficult to re-supply troops

Naval world power

Trained soldiers---but no heart

Approximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England.

Practically none

No $$$ to support the war

Volunteers, poorly equipped

Dedicated officers plus foreign leaders

Familiar land, easy access to supplies

No navy

Defending homeland---will to fight


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8. MILITARY STRATEGIES

The British

The Americans

  • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].

  • Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]

  • Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.

  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.

  • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.

  • “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.


Cornell note taking

Cornell professor Walter Pauk 

Cornell Note Taking


Cornell note taking1

Cornell Note Taking


Left column

Main Idea/Subheadings

In the left column write a sentence or two for each heading (red) and subheading (blue) in your textbook.

The sentence should summarize the most important points made in the section.

Left column


Left column1

**** For the first assignment there are 7 headings

1. War for Independence

2. The First Phase: New England

Etc….(There are 7 total)

Left column


Right column

Details

On the right, any list essential facts from each section. This side should not be in complete sentences.

There is no set number of details you need to include.

Right Column


Details

Examples

Bunker HillBritain suffers major casualties.

Battle of Saratoga- Major turning point of the war

Details


Questions at least 2

Write at least two questions you thought of as you were reading.

If you haven't asked any questions, you aren't processing the material!

Questions (At least 2): -


Summary

Summary:

At the end of main heading they need to write a summary in their own words.

Why would history nerds consider this interesting?

Summary


Reading quiz

There will be a ‘reading quiz’ in which you can use your note sheet, but nothing else.

Reading Quiz:


Launch list

1. Have your Cornell notes out from Friday

Launch List


British military phases

British Military Phases:

Phase I:The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]

Phase II: NY & PA [1777-1778]

Phase III:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]


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Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]


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Phase II:

NY & PA[1777-1778]


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Phase III:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]


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Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]


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1. Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]

  • Containment in New England – the British first thought the revolution was a radical minority movement centered in New England so they concentrated their forces there. But then came The Battle of Bunker Hill and…


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BUNKER

HILL, Mass.

HOMEFIELD!

  • June 17, 1775

  • Moral Victory for the Colonists

  • The British suffer 40% casualties.

    • 2,250 men

    • 1,054 injured

    • 226 killed

  • Americans: Moral victory

    • 800 men

    • 140 killed

    • 271 wounded

  • King George sends 10,000 Hessian soldiers to help put down the rebellion.


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HOMEFIELD!


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2. BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL OR BREED'S HILL

Battle of Bunker Hill raised the morale of the American Army though the British won the battle and suffered severe casualties. The Americans held their own against the greatest army in the world. The British never broke out of Boston or gained access to the countryside which the American army held.


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Phase II:

NY & PA[1777-1778]


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New York City in Flames(1776)


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3. Phase II:

NY & NJ[1777-1778]

  • After Bunker Hill, the British realized it was not going to be easy

  • They shift to divide the colonies by gaining control of the Hudson River.

  • This Fails.


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4. BATTLE OF TRENTON

  • Referred to as the “ten crucial days”…Dec. 25th to Jan. 3rd

  • First major victory for the Continental Army and Washington

  • Raised the morale of the American troops as well as the country

  • Led to soldiers re-enlisting and future enlistments

  • Captured over 1,000 Hessian soldiers, weapons, food and etc.

  • American Army re-crossed the Delaware to Valley Forge in Pennsylvania


Us delaware

US Delaware

WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE FOR TRENTON


Surrender trenton

Surrender/trenton

SURRENDER AT TRENTON


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Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War?


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5. BATTLE OF SARATOGA

  • IMPORTANCE:

  • Franco-American alliance, 1778

  • Led to a military alliance with France providing soldiers, naval fleet and $$$$$.


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6. BATTLE OF SARATOGA

The British

The Americans

  • Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]

  • “Run run run away, live to fight another day!” GW

  • 1777, separate and control New England.

  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the North and South.


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BATTLE OF SARATOGA


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BATTLE OF SARATOGA

  • Oct. 1777, British General, John Burgoyne was surrounded by US General Horatio Gates and forced to surrender 6,000 British troops.

  • British defeat stopped them from cutting off New England from the rest of the country and ending the war.

  • British lacked knowledge of geography and failed at communications.


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SURRENDER AT SARATOGA

Surrender/saratoga


Launch list1

Launch List

  • 1. Have your notes out from yesterday


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7. Phase II: NY & PA [1777-1778]

Results

  • After the debacle at Saratoga (1778), which caused the French to join the colonists.

  • The British give up on the North and made a last ditch effort in the south.


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Phase III:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]


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8. Britain’s “Southern Strategy”

  • Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South.

  • Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving.

  • The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U.S. failures in Vietnam!]

  • Good US General:Nathanial Greene


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The Battle of Yorktown (1781)

Count de Rochambeau

AdmiralDe Grasse


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  • Battle of Yorktown

  • British General Charles Cornwallis wanted to winter his troops in the South believing the war would be won in the Spring…..

  • Yorktown was chosen because it provided easy access to be reinforced and re-supplied

  • General Washington learned of the British decision to winter their main troops in Yorktown.

Map-yorktown


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  • Battle of Yorktown

  • Strategy included the use of the French navy, French troops and American troops.

  • French navy under the direction of Admiral de Grasse, placed a blockade around the Chesapeake Bay.

  • 15,000 American and French troops surrounded 8,000 British troops……

  • General Cornwallis is trapped and is forced to his surrender his troops to Washington

  • Brings war to an end


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Cornwallis’ Surrender at YorktowN

“The World Turned Upside Down!”

Painted by John Trumbull, 1797


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9. Why did the

British Lose???

  • Couldn’t Win on the Road

  • Controlled cities but not countryside

  • Generals made key mistakes

    • Little Communication

  • US had more will to fight

  • C’s Alliances with France.


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  • Treaty of Paris, 1783

  • Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States

  • US acquired land from the Great Lakes to Florida and Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

  • British were to remove troops and forts from US Land.

USA

United States after the Revolutionary War

British Forts


Treaty of paris

Treaty of Paris

  • The patriot victory at Yorktown conviced the British war was too costly

  • March 1782- King George 3 appoints new ministers to give Americans independence

  • Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay represented the US in peace talks in Paris


Treaty of paris1

Treaty of Paris

  • Talks took 6 months and eventually the British accepted a preliminary agreement written by Americans

  • The American Congress ratified or approved a preliminary treaty in April 1783.


Treaty of paris2

Treaty of Paris

USA


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