Chapter 10 a changing nation
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Chapter 10 A Changing Nation. Warm Up. Question: After the War of 1812, Americans entered a new era. What do you think the U.S. felt like after the War of 1812? Why would they feel this way?. Warm Up.

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Chapter 10 A Changing Nation

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Chapter 10A Changing Nation


Warm Up

  • Question: After the War of 1812, Americans entered a new era.

  • What do you think the U.S. felt like after the War of 1812? Why would they feel this way?


Warm Up

  • Americans were very confident. They had defeated the mighty British Empire twice in recent history.

  • They also enjoyed a period of calm and unity.


Warm up

Question:

Who became the 5th President of the United States?


Answer:

James Monroe


Building a National Identity10.1


  • The American Revolution and the War of 1812 allowed our nation to have a common heritage. We were proud to be Americans.

  • The Era of Good Feelings


  • Eventually, Americans started to think the government should take action to increase prosperity in the U.S.

  • However, each region started wanting different things.

  • This became known as sectionalism.

  • The U.S. eventually broke into 3 regions; they were the North, the South, and the West.


The 3 regions of the U.S. disagreed on:

  • Slavery

  • Trade restrictions (tariffs)

  • A second national bank

  • Internal improvements

    • Changes made to the U.S. such as new transportation (canals, roads)


The Spokesmen

  • Three Congressmen started to speak on behalf of their regions:

    • John C. Calhoun (South)

    • Daniel Webster (North)

    • Henry Clay (West)


John C. Calhoun


John C. Calhoun

  • Spokesperson for the South

  • Planter in South Carolina

  • Supported internal improvements, developing industries, and a national bank

  • At one time Calhoun believed in a strong Federal government; BUT eventually he thought states should hold more power.


Daniel Webster


Daniel Webster

  • From Massachusetts

  • Nationalist

    • Supported policies that strengthened the nation

      • Tariff of 1816 (protect U.S. businesses)

  • “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”


Henry Clay


Henry Clay

  • From Kentucky

  • Supported Western states

  • Tried to solve Sectional differences

  • Wanted national unity through compromise (Missouri Compromise-we’ll talk about this later!)

  • Created the American system

    • Stimulate growth of U.S. industry

    • Internal improvements


Warm UpQuestion:What were the four topics that divided the nation at this time?


  • Slavery

  • Trade restrictions (tariffs)

  • A second national bank

  • Internal improvements


10.2

Dealing With Other Nations


10.2 Notes

Complete the chart using the following slides.


Foreign Relations

  • Relations with Britain:

    Rush-Bagot Treaty:

    • Limited number of naval vessels that the U.S. and Britain could have on the Great Lakes.

    • DISARMAMENT- the removal of weapons

Convention of 1818:

  • Set the Boundary between U.S. and Canada (49th parallel)

  • Gain right to settle Oregon


Foreign Relations

  • Relations with Spain:

    Adams-Onis Treaty:

    • U.S. gains Florida gives up Spanish Texas

    • U.S. pays $5 million in “damages”

    • Land Northwest of 42 parallel

  • Relations with Europe:

    Monroe Doctrine:

    - The U.S. will not interfere with existing European colonies in America

    - The U.S. will oppose any new European settlements in America!

    - Key aspect of U.S. foreign policy


Warm up:

How did the United States get Florida from the Spanish?


Answer:

Spain was losing power over its colonies in the Americas. The Spanish knew the U.S. could easily take the territory over so when the U.S. offered to buy the land Spain agreed.

The Adams-Onis Treaty


10.3

The Age of Jackson

“Old Hickory”


Election of 1824

Four people ran for president in 1824, including:

  • John Quincy Adams

  • Andrew Jackson

  • Henry Clay

  • William Crawford

    • NO candidate won a majority of electoral votes

    • Jackson won plurality (The largest single share)

    • Election had to be decided in the House of Representatives

    • Speaker of the House Henry Clay made a “corrupt bargain” with J.Q. Adams. Adams became president. Clay became Sec. of State

    • FYI: Another political party developed…the Anti-Jacksons (called the Whigs)


J. Q. Adams’ Presidency

  • He acted against popular opinion

    • Wanted:

      • Strong Navy

      • Scientific expeditions in the west

      • Federal control of the economy

  • This terrified the majority of people who believed that the states’ should have more power.

  • Sectionalism continued to be a problem in the U.S.


The Election of 1828

Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams (Again!)


The race for the White House in 1828 pitted incumbent John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson.

The beginning of the 1828 campaign revealed little difference between the two candidates on the major political issues of the day. It became obvious that the race would be a personality contest and that Jackson had the clear lead. Faced with this reality, the Adams camp injected scandal into their campaign.


Adams's supporters hurled charges adultery, gambling, murder, and corruption against Jackson. Jackson’s supporters retaliated with charges of adultery against Adams and his wife. The campaign descended into a mudslinging contest.

Things became so mean that Jackson believed that Adams’ attack killed his wife.

Jackson was America's first "Frontier President" – the first president who did not come from the nation’s east-coast elite. His victory was seen as a triumph for the common man and for democracy. The celebration of his inauguration was an opportunity for America’s ordinary citizen to rejoice.

Read “A Historical Perspective” (handout)


Mudslinging

John Quincy Adams:

Campaign Song

  • According to the song, what will happen is John Quincy Adams is not elected?


Outcome of 1828 Election

  • Jackson won by a landslide

  • 1st frontier president


Jackson’s Legacy

Watch the video about how Andrew Jackson changed the American Presidency.


Election Changes

  • Jacksonian Democracy

    • Jackson’s supporters wanted to make the voting system more democratic:

      • Eliminated the caucus system

        • Political candidates chosen by Congressmen

      • Created nominating conventions

        • Delegates selected a party’s candidate based on the people’s vote


Changes in Voting

  • What is suffrage?

    • The right to vote

  • Who was able to vote before 1815?

    • White men who owned property or paid taxes

  • In the 1820’s laws were loosened

    • Many states overlooked the property ownership requirement and suffrage spread.


Spoils System

  • “To the victory go the spoils…”

  • Jackson replaced some government officials with his campaign supporters.

  • He believed that he was expanding democracy by these actions.


Warm Up

The Election of 1828 was vicious. What tactic was used in the 1828 election?


Warm Up

Mudslinging-attempts to ruin an opponent’s reputation with insults.


10.4

Indian Removal


What was Indian Removal?

  • A plan carried out by President Jackson to help the U.S. expand westward

  • Remove Native Americans from land east of the Mississippi River

  • Relocate them to the “Indian Territory”—land west of the Mississippi River, present day Oklahoma

  • Unfair to Natives

  • Lots of suffering and thousands died along the trips westward


Black Hawk War


  • Native Americans

  • (led by Black Hawk)-chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes

  • VS.

  • Americans

Who was involved?

Black Hawk


When did the Black Hawk War occur?

April-August ,1832


Where did the Black Hawk War occur?

Illinois and Wisconsin (then part of Michigan Territory)


What Happened?

General Henry Atkinson

The Native Americans had land in Illinois and Wisconsin.

In the 1820’s, the U.S. took it away. They forced Black Hawk’s people to sign treaties giving up their land.

Black Hawk had already fought against the Americans in the War of 1812. Now, as white settlers began plowing land that was sacred to Native Americans, he was ready to fight again. His forces began raiding outlying white settlements. U.S. troops under General Henry Atkinson pursued the Sauk and Fox across northern Illinois and into Wisconsin. They caught up with them where the Bax Axe River flows into the Mississippi. Black Hawk surrendered, but Akinson’s men opened fire anyway, killing 200 women, children and warriors. Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned for a year. Then he rejoined the remnants of his tribe on a reservation in Iowa.

It was the last Indian war east of the Mississippi River.


Did you know…

Abraham Lincoln enlisted in an Illinois militia unit during the Black Hawk War. He became a captain, but did not see action.

Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) Also fought in the war.


The Trail of Tears


=

Indian Removal Act

Congress paid Indians for their land


Indian Removal Act

Removing the Indians was one of Andrew Jackson’s campaign promises


Trail of Tears

  • There were five tribes that were associated with the Trail of Tears.

  • They were the:

    • The Choctaw

    • The Chickasaw

    • The Seminole

    • The Creek

    • The Cherokee (This tribe’s story is the most closely associate with The Trail of Tears)


The Cherokee Nation

  • The Cherokee refused to leave and go to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

  • Cherokee Chief, John

  • Ross led the refusal

  • to move west


The Cherokee Nation

Georgia did not recognize the Cherokees as a nation

The Cherokees sued the state of Georgia to try and remain on their land


Worcester vs. Georgia

Decision: Native Americans were protected by the U.S. Constitution. This meant they didn’t have to move west


Worcester vs. Georgia

President Jackson ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling and sent troops to Georgia


General Winfield Scott and 7,000 federal troops forced the Cherokee Indians to move

Trail of Tears


Trail of Tears

Fighting would lead to their destruction so The Cherokee had no choice but to leave their land during the winter of 1838-1839.

Thousands of Cherokee died during the journey (brutal weather)


The Cherokee often refer to the Trail of Tears as the Trail where they Cried because of the death and sadness they experienced


The Seminole Wars

Briefly describe the events that took place:

  • The U.S. government tried to force the Natives Americans of Florida to relocate to the Indian Territory.

  • Some Seminoles relocated immediately, others resisted the forced movement and used guerilla tactics against the U.S.

  • A number of Native American leaders were imprisoned during the wars.

  • A third Seminole War would later take place.

    Name and explain two important people in this event:

  • Osceola-led the Seminole resistance movement

  • Major Dade-led the U.S. army against the Seminoles

  • Andrew Jackson-led multiple campaigns to removed Native Americans from Florida

Who was involved?

The U.S. and the Seminole tribe

When did the wars take place?

Two wars 1817-1818 and 1835-42

Where did the wars take place?

Throughout Florida


Warm up:Explain one of the following:Trail of TearsSeminole WarsBlack Hawk War


Trail of Tears-The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States

The Black Hawk War- Fought in 1832 in the Midwestern U.S. The war was named for Black Hawk a war chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes.

They fought against the U.S. Army and militia from Illinois and the Michigan Territory (present-day Wisconsin) for possession of lands in the area.

Seminole Wars -The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the U.S.


10.5

States’ Rights and the Economy


The Bank War

  • The Second Bank of the United States earned strong support from business people.

  • On the other hand, many Americans disliked the Bank. They opposed the way the bank restricted loans made by state banks. This limited the amount of money the banks could lend, which angered farmers and merchants.


War!Against the Bank“I have always been afraid of banks."

Jackson

“…when laws… make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society—farmers, mechanics, and laborers– who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government.”


  • Although many Americans thought Jackson took too much power as president, most agreed with his veto of the bank and he won reelection in 1832.

  • Shortly after he was reelected he decided to “kill the bank!”

  • He withdrew all government deposits and the bank was forced to shut down.


The Tariff Debate

  • What is a Tariff?

    • A fee paid by merchants on imported goods

  • In 1828 a high tariff was passed by Congress against European manufactured goods.

    • More people bought American goods

    • BUT the South was upset

    • They traded cotton with Europe so this hurt their economy


Nullification Crisis

  • The South responded by trying to nullify the tariff

    • States had a right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law it considered unconstitutional

    • Some southern states wanted to secede, or break away from the U.S.

    • Basically this was a conflict over how much power the federal government should have


Tariff of 1832

  • Congress passed this to try to solve the problem in the south

    • It was a lower tariff

    • It did not please the south


Jackson’s response:

  • “I feel in the depths of my soul that it is the highest, most sacred, and most irreversible part of my obligation to preserve the union of these states, although it may cost me my life.”


Force Bill

  • It allowed Jackson to enforce any acts of Congress with military force!


South Carolina Threatens to Secede

  • South Carolina voted to nullify the tariffs

  • They also warned the federal govt. not to use force to impose the tariffs

  • Jackson was furious. He issued a “Proclamation to the People of South Carolina.” It said that the Union could not be dissolved

  • Unable to win support from other states, South Carolina then repealed its tariff nullification


Election of 1836- Martin Van Buren

  • He was Jackson’s Vice President

  • Elected in 1836 over the Whig party

    • The Whigs were a group of people who disliked Jackson


Van Buren’s Presidency

  • During his term in office, a depression occurred.

  • The people who had supported Jackson turned against Van Buren and the Whigs gained ground

  • However, Van Buren ran for president again in 1840


Election of 1840- General William Henry Harrison

  • The Whigs chose him as their candidate

  • They used a log cabin campaign to get him elected

    • They labeled him as a common man of the people!


Death of a President

John Tyler becomes president 32 days after Harrison took office.1st Vice-President to gain the presidency because the elected president died in office.

No major accomplishments.


Warm Up

Finish the table-Presidents and their V-Ps1-Washington, Adams2- Adams, _____________3-Jefferson, Burr and Clinton4-James Madison, Clinton and Gerry5-___________, Tompkins6-J.Q.Adams, _____________7-________, Calhoun and Van Buren8-Van Buren, ____________9-Harrison, John Tyler10-Tyler, none


Warm Up

Finish the table1-Washington, Adams2- Adams, Jefferson3-Jefferson, Burr and Clinton4-James Madison, Clinton and Gerry5-James Monroe, Tompkins6-J.Q.Adams, Calhoun7-Jackson, Calhoun and Van Buren8-Van Buren, Johnson 9-Harrison, John Tyler10-Tyler, none


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