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Chapter 10. A Changing Nation. Section 1: Building a National Identity. The Era of Good Feelings Republicans took control of government after the war of 1812 Madison beat Rufus King 183 to 34 Madison wanted to promote national unity Toured much of the North and middle areas

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10 l.jpg

Chapter 10

A Changing Nation


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Section 1: Building a National Identity

  • The Era of Good Feelings

    • Republicans took control of government after the war of 1812

      • Madison beat Rufus King 183 to 34

    • Madison wanted to promote national unity

      • Toured much of the North and middle areas

      • He was well received in all areas

      • A Boston writer commented on his time as president as the era of good feelings

        • Nobody ran against him in the election of 1820

  • Building the National Economy

    • Americans wanted the government to take a more active role in economics

      • This was a change from a focus on states rights to federal intervention


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Section 1: Building a National Identity

  • Support for the idea came from 3 influential people

    • Henry Clay – Kentucky

      • Spoke in the west

      • People needed better roads and canals to transport goods

    • John Calhoun

      • Spoke for southerners

      • Defended states rights

    • Daniel Webster

      • Spoke for the NE area

      • Came to support protective tariffs

  • 2nd Bank of the U.S.

    • Established in 1816 by congress

      • Privately owned – had a charter from the U.S. Government

      • Could operate for 20 years

        • Lent money to individuals

        • Controlled the money supply


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    Section 1: Building a National Identity

    • Tariff of 1816

      • Passed for protection of American industry

        • Britain had well established factories

        • They were able to produce goods much cheaper than the U.S.

          • This allowed them to fill the market and drive U.S. manufacturers out of business

      • Protective tariff was popular in the North

        • This is where the most manufacturing was

      • Very unpopular in the South

        • Made southerners pay more for goods

          • Calhoun – tariffs made northern manufacturers rich at the expense of the south


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    Section 1: Building a National Identity

    • Clay’s American System

      • Proposed high tariffs and a federal program of public works

        • Believed that high tariffs helped all areas of the country

          • Wealth of manufacturers from tariffs would allow them purchase more products from western and southern farmers

        • The Tariff would provide revenue for the Government

          • Which could put the money to good use like…

        • Build up the infrastructure

          • Roads, bridges, canals in the south and the west

      • Clay’s plan was never fully implemented

        • Both Madison and Monroe refused to support some of the projects

        • Southerners were convinced that Tariffs would not help the south in the long run


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    Section 1: Building a National Identity

    • Three important Supreme Court Rulings

      • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

        • Court protected the 2nd bank of the U.S.

          • Maryland tried to tax the bank – the bank refused to pay

          • The decision strengthened the federal government

            • States have no power to interfere with federal institutions

            • No state can pass any law that violates a federal one

          • Strengthened the power of the Federal Government

      • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

        • Court promoted capitalism

          • System in which privately owned businesses compete in a free market

        • Decision said that the charter for Dartmouth College was a private contract

        • state could not interfere with the that contract

        • Strengthened the economy – Capitalism – Free Market


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    Section 1: Building a National Identity

    • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

      • Supported Federal power

        • Ruled that NY could not give a steamboat company a monopoly to carry passengers on the Hudson River

        • Court said that the boat includes stops in NJ as well

          • This means it is INTERSTATE commerce

          • Trade between more than 1 state – and is regulated by Congress

        • The decision strengthened the Federal Government

  • All three decisions increased the power of the Federal Government at the expense of the states


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    Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations

    • Relations with Spain

      • Spain’s power had weakened over time

        • Wars with England and maintaining uprisings in colonies

      • Escaped slaves often fled from the U.S. into Spanish Florida

        • Joined with the Seminoles

        • Went on raids to American settlements

      • 1817 U.S. sends in Old Hickory

        • He attacked and destroyed 2 Seminole villages

        • He then went far beyond his orders

          • Attacked and seized 2 Spanish towns

          • Forced the governor to flee

      • Spain realizes that they can no longer hold onto Florida

        • U.S. could take it at any time

        • They sign the Adams-Onis treaty in 1819 which ceded Florida


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    Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations

    • Spanish Colonies Win Independence

      • Mexico breaks away

        • 1818 – Fr. Miguel Hidalgo organized an army of Native Americans

          • They freed several provinces in Mexico

          • Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811

        • 1820 – a second revolution breaks out

          • Spain was unable to end the fighting

          • They signed a treaty in 1821 giving Mexico independence

        • Mexico’s Governments

          • At first it Mexico was ruled by an emperor

          • In 1823 that changed to a constitutional government like America


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    Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations

    • Independence for South and Central America

      • 1819 – Simon Bolivar led a rebellion

        • Marched troops through Venezuela into Columbia defeating the Spanish

        • Became president of the independent republic of Columbia

          • Included Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Panama

      • 1821 – Central America declares independence

        • Spain was unable to resist

        • They formed the United Provinces of Central America

          • Included Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala

      • 1822 – Brazil declares Independence from Portugal

      • The U.S. formally recognized the independence of these countries

        • By 1825 most of Latin America was free of European control


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    Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations

    • The Monroe Doctrine

      • The U.S. would not allow European nations to create new colonies or interfere with Latin America

      • Very important foreign policy

        • Russia and France talked of helping Spain regain its colonies

        • This would be damaging to U.S. trade in the area

          • Would harm British trade as well

        • England had suggested a ‘joint’ statement

          • J.Q. Adams suggested that the U.S. make the statement alone

            • Monroe agrees

      • This was the beginning of the special friendship that we share with England

        • U.S. was not strong enough to block European interference

          • The British Navy was

        • U.S. Foreign Policy was being enforced by England


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    Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations

    • Relations with Canada

      • Canada was still a British colony

      • Relations were tense with U.S. because of failed invasions during war of 1812

      • The English learned a lesson from America

        • If they wanted to keep Canada, they would have to give Canadians self government

      • Relations improved between Canada and the U.S.

        • Border disputes were settled peacefully

        • Eventually we established excellent relations


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • Election of 1824

      • First time Andrew Jackson ran for President

        • He ran against J.Q. Adams, Henry Clay, and William Crawford

      • And the winner was….

        • Andrew Jackson won the popular vote

        • Andrew Jackson had more electoral votes

          • But he did not have a majority of the electoral votes

          • House of Reps. had to decide between Adams and Jackson

      • Speaker of the house – Henry Clay

        • He had great influence

          • Told his supporters to vote for Adams

          • They did – Adams becomes president


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • Jackson’s Reaction

      • Jackson and his followers were furious

      • They claimed the 2 men had made a ‘corrupt bargain’

        • Clay was named Adams’ secretary of state….

    • Presidency of J.Q. Adams

      • Adams accomplished little in 4 years

        • Stigma of the corrupt bargain

        • Not politically savvy

      • Attempted to get a national program running

        • Build roads and canals

        • A high tariff on imports

          • “Clay’s American Plan”

        • He never won the trust of the people though

        • As a result, he served only one term


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • A New Era in Politics

      • More people were able to vote

        • Most states had dropped the property requirement

        • If you were a white male, you could vote and hold office

      • Democracy in the Age of Jackson

        • Jackson believed that rich and poor alike should be a part of government

        • He opposed special privileges for the wealthy

        • He did not trust government

        • He was also very suspicious of banks – which he believed favored the rich


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • New Political Parties

      • National Republicans (Adams) and Democrats (Jackson)

        • NR party formed in 1828

          • Died shortly after

        • Whigs formed in 1836 – they were anti-jackson

        • Whigs and Democrats were the two parties until 1852

      • New ways of doing things

        • Presidential candidates had been chosen by a Caucus

          • Meeting of members of a political party

        • Now they were chosen by Nominating Conventions

          • Large meetings of party delegates to choose candidates

            • Opened the process to many more people

            • Made things more democratic


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • Jackson becomes President

      • 3x as many people voted in 1828 than in 1824

      • Jackson won the presidency easily

        • The election did show some sectionalism forming

          • Voters in different parts of the country were more likely to vote for one candidate than another

      • Jackson’s Inauguration

        • Jackson’s was a victory for the ‘common man’

        • His inauguration showed this plainly

          • 20,000+ people attended from all walks of life

          • Many did not behave well

            • More like a huge party than a regal event

          • Critics dubbed Jackson's election as the ‘reign of king mob’


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    Section 3: The Age of Jackson

    • The Spoils System

      • To the victor belongs the spoils

        • Spoils system is the practice of rewarding government jobs to loyal supporters

      • Jackson was no different than any other president

        • All of them had replaced some government officials

        • Jackson only replaced 20%

          • Difference was that Jackson openly defended his decisions

          • He claimed putting new people into these jobs furthered democracy


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    Section 4: Indian Removal

    • Native Americans of the Southeast

      • 100,000 lived in the SE when Jackson became president

        • Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek

        • Many lived in towns or were farmers

      • The Cherokee

        • Had adopted white customs

          • Farmed, ran businesses

          • Had their own schools

          • Some converted to Christianity

          • Had a written alphabet

          • Established a government based on a written constitution

          • They had a newspaper published in both English and Cherokee


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    Section 4: Indian Removal

    • Conflict over Land

      • Forced Movement

        • This began under Jefferson

      • Treaties

        • Signed after the war of 1812 – NW native Americans moved west of the Mississippi

        • Pressure grew on SE Natives

          • Monroe tried to get them to move

          • White southerners demanded that they be moved by force

          • Georgia passed a law forcing the Creek to give up most of their land

          • 1828 they did the same with the Cherokee

            • The Cherokee fought back… but not how you might think


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    Section 4: Indian Removal

    • Support for Native Americans

      • The Cherokee challenged Georgia in court!

        • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

          • Court refused to stop Georgia from enforcing its law

        • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

          • The Supreme court declared that Georgia’s laws could have no force within Cherokee territory

      • Chief Justice John Marshall

        • Delivered the majority opinion of the court

        • Said that the U.S. had signed treaties with the Cherokee

          • Treaties were made by the federal government

          • Therefore they are supreme to state passed laws

      • Jackson was furious

        • He has made his decision, now let him enforce it

        • Plans were already underway from the Indian Removal Act (federal law)


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    Section 4: Indian Removal

    • The Trail of Tears

      • Removal of the Choctaws

        • Under the IRA of 1830 – the government gave lands west of the Mississippi for their lands east of the Mississippi

        • Choctaws signed first

          • They moved west guarded by soldiers from 1831-33

          • They were not given enough supplies for the journey

          • An army officer noted that

            • One group walked 24 hours barefoot though the snow and ice before reaching shelter

      • Removal of the Cherokee

        • They held out longer, but were forced out in 1838 by Van Buren

          • Similar conditions

          • Guarded by thousands of soldiers, they marched hundreds of miles

          • 15,000 began the journey - @11,000 arrived


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • The Bank War

      • Pros

        • Bank made loans to businesses

        • Safe place for government’s money

        • Paper currency it issued was stable

        • Careful policies created confidence in other banks

      • Cons

        • Limited the money state banks could lend

        • Some thought the bank only benefited the wealthy

      • Jackson vs. The Monster

        • Bank’s worst enemy was Jackson

          • He especially disliked the bank’s president – Nicholas Biddle

          • Believed Biddle used his position to do favors for other rich people


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • The bank fight increased the power of the President

      • Biddle got congress to renew the bank’s charter in 1832

        • He thought that so many people would support the bank, that Jackson would be afraid to veto the bill

        • He was wrong

      • Jackson vetoed the bank

      • He won re-election in 1832 by a huge margin

        • Defeating Henry Clay (a bank supporter – who helped Biddle get the charter approved in congress)

      • The bank veto showed that a president could get people involved and not bend to the will of congress


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • The Question of States Rights

      • People had long debated where the balance of power should be

        • More to states or more to federal government

          • Alien and Sedition Acts

          • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

          • Hartford Conventions

            • All had raised this question

      • Nullification Crisis

        • Began in 1828 with a tariff on Iron, Textiles and other products

          • The tariff helped manufacturers in the North and West

          • But it harmed southerners (they had to pay more for goods)

        • Vice President John C. Calhoun argued that states had the right of nullification


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • Arguments for Nullification

      • If the government could enforce an ‘unjust’ law, could it also end slavery?

      • Calhoun thought the following

        • The Union was formed by an agreement amongst the states

        • Each state kept certain powers to itself

        • One of these powers was to nullify unjust laws

    • Arguments against Nullification

      • Daniel Webster summarized it nicely

        • We are all agents of the same supreme power, the people

          • Idea was that the U.S. had not been formed by the states, but by the people within those states

    • President vs. Vice President

      • Jackson – “Our Federal Union – It must be preserved”

      • Calhoun – “The Union – next to our liberty – the most dear”


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • South Carolina Threatens to Secede

      • Tariff of 1832

        • Lowered some tariffs, but again raised the one on iron and textiles

      • SC called a state convention

        • They voted to nullify the 1828 & 1832 tariffs

          • They ‘did not apply to SC’

        • The state warned the federal government not to use force to impose the tariffs or SC would leave the union

      • Jackson is Furious… (he gets that way a lot)

        • He said..

          • The union cannot be dissolved

          • Any attempt to do so was treason


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    Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy

    • Jackson goes to Congress

      • He asks for 2 bills

      • 1 – to lower the 1828 and 1832 tariffs

      • 2 – to use force to collect them from SC

        • Congress passes both laws

    • SC backs down

      • They could not get other states to follow their lead

      • Didn’t want to stand against the U.S. alone

      • The crisis had been settled peacefully…. For now.


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