The second line of defense the inflammatory response
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The Second Line of Defense ~The Inflammatory Response~ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Second Line of Defense ~The Inflammatory Response~. Injured body cells release chemicals called histamines , which begin the inflammatory response Capillaries dilate Pyrogens are released, reach hypothalamus, and body temperature rises Pain receptors are activated

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The Second Line of Defense ~The Inflammatory Response~

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The Second Line of Defense~The Inflammatory Response~

  • Injured body cells release chemicals called histamines, which begin the inflammatory response

    • Capillaries dilate

    • Pyrogens are released, reach hypothalamus, and body temperature rises

    • Pain receptors are activated

    • WBCs flock to infected area like sharks to blood

Two Divisions of the Immune System

  • The efforts of the WBCs known as phagocytes and T-cells is called the cell-mediated immune system.

    • Protective factor = living cells

      • Phagocytes – eat invaders

      • T-cells – kill invaders

Two Divisions of the Immune System

  • The other half of the immune system is called antibody-mediated immunity, meaning that is controlled by antibodies

  • This represents the third line of defense of the immune system

The Third Line of Defense- Specific Immune Response~Antibodies~

  • Most infections never make it past the first and second levels of defense

  • Those that do trigger the production and release of antibodies

    • Proteins that latch onto, damage, clump, and slow foreign particles

    • Each antibody binds only to one specific binding site, known as an antigen

    • An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen. An antigen may also be formed within the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.

Antibody Production

  • WBCs gobble up invading particles and break them up

  • They show the particle pieces to T-cells, which identify the pieces and find specific B-cells to help

  • B-cells produce antibodies that are equipped to find that specific piece on a new particle and attach to it


  • New particles take longer to identify, and a person remains ill until a new antibody can be crafted

  • Old particles are quickly recognized, and a person may never become ill from that invader again. This person is now immune.

What is immunity?

  • Resistance to a disease causing organism or harmful substance

  • Two types

    • Active Immunity

    • Passive Immunity

Active Immunity

  • You produce the antibodies

    • Your body has been exposed to the antigen in the past either through:

      • Exposure to the actual disease causing antigen – You fought it, you won, you remember it

      • Planned exposure to a form of the antigen that has been killed or weakened – You detect it, eliminate it, and remember it

  • What is this second type of exposure called?


  • Antigens are deliberately introduced into the immune system to produce immunity

  • Because the virus has been killed or weakened, minimal symptoms occur

  • Have eradicated or severely limited several diseases from the face of the Earth, such as polio and smallpox

How long does active immunity last?

  • It depends on the antigen

  • Some disease-causing viruses multiply into new forms that our body doesn’t recognize, requiring annual vaccinations, like the flu shot

  • Booster shot - reminds the immune system of the antigen

  • Others last for a lifetime, such as chicken pox

Think the flu is no big deal?

  • Think again…

  • In 1918, a particularly deadly strain of flu, called the Spanish Influenza, spread across the globe

  • It infected 20% of the human population and killed 5%, which came out to be about 100 million people

Do we get all the possible vaccines we can?

  • Although the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends certain vaccines, many individuals go without them

  • Those especially susceptible include travelers, students, the elderly, and immunocompromised individualss

  • Consider the vaccine for meningitis, which is recommended for all college students and infects 3,000 people in the U.S., killing 300 annually

Passive Immunity

  • YOUdon’t produce the antibodies

    • A mother will pass some of her immunity on to her baby during pregnancy

    • These antibodies will protect the baby for a short period of time following birth while its immune system develops. Lasts until antibodies die

Why doesn’t the mother just pass on the WBCs that “remember” the antigens?

Immune Disorders~Allergies~

  • Immune system mistakenly recognizes harmless foreign particles as serious threats

  • Launches immune response, which causes sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes

  • Anti-histamines block effect of histamines and bring relief to allergy sufferers

Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

  • Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  • Discovered in 1983

  • Specifically targets and kills T-cells

  • Because normal body cells are unaffected, immune response is not launched

AIDS~The Modern Plague~

  • The HIV virus doesn’t kill you – it cripples your immune system

  • With your immune system shut down, common diseases that your immune system normally could defeat become life-threatening

  • Can show no effects for several months all the way up to 10 years

AIDS~The Silent Spread~

  • Transmitted by sexual contact, blood transfusions, contaminated needles

  • As of 2007, it affects an estimated 33.2 million people

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