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Integrating Sources. What are sources?. Primary Directly from the person (report) or time (letters / poetry/ books) Example: Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales Secondary Criticism about the primary source or discussion of an experiment

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what are sources
What are sources?
  • Primary
    • Directly from the person (report) or time (letters / poetry/ books)
      • Example: Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales
  • Secondary
    • Criticism about the primary source or discussion of an experiment
      • Example: Paul T. Thurston’s “Artistic Ambivalence in Chaucer’s Knight\'s Tale.”
  • Tertiary
    • Collections about primary and secondary sources.
      • Example: Beryl Rowland’s “Contemporary Chaucer Criticism.”
        • http://english.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/112/3.full.pdf

NB: Some sources can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your question/ research.

why do we use sources
Why do we use sources?
  • Introduce and frame ideas and arguments
  • Contrast ideas or arguments
  • Provide evidence for your argument
  • Align your argument with an authority
  • Define a concept
  • Illustrate a process
  • Clarify a statement
  • Set a mood

Palmquist

use of sources
Use of sources
  • How can I use my sources to:
    • Accomplish my purpose
    • Address the needs and interests of my audience

http://www.neubloc.com/news.asp?nid=5

what s my p urpose
What’s my purpose?
  • Paper:
    • Leading readers to the issue you are discussing or addressing
    • Responding to your prompt
  • Use of sources:
    • Strengthening your argument with evidence

Palmquist

how can i address the interests and needs of my audience
How can I address the interests and needs of my audience?
  • Analyze your assignment
  • Discover your audience and their reasons for reading your paper
  • Find what influences your readers
  • Understand the type of document you are writing
  • Know your limitations and weaknesses
finding sources
Finding sources
  • Look on the Library of Congress site for subject terms
  • Googlescholar
    • Generally has a smoother search function than the library
    • Can put titles found into the Library database to find availability
  • Library
    • Easter egging helps
    • Research Librarians are your friend
  • Library databases
    • Can search multiple places at once
formatting sources
Formatting sources
  • Two types:
    • Direct Quotes
    • Paraphrasing
  • Direct quotes should be integrated:
    • A “careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present [an] argumen[t] that might be more pointed than you” would make (Palmquist 175).
  • Paraphrasing MUST be cited
direct quote
Direct Quote
  • “an exact copy of words found in a source” Palmquist (133).
  • Use quotation marks, unless it is a block quote, and cite
  • Block quotes Page length
  • MLA
    • Uses direct quotes as supporting evidence
  • APA
    • Uses direct quotes rarely
    • Only when it cannot be said better by paraphrasing
direct quote integration
Direct Quote Integration
  • Use partial, complete, and block quotations:
    • Partial: a single word, phrase or most of a sentence
    • Complete: one or more complete sentences
    • Block: extended quotations – MLA: 4 lines or more/ APA: 40 words
  • Modify quotes with ellipses, brackets, and “sic”:
    • Ellipses: indicates … words
    • Brackets: indicates added words [words to help fit the structure of the sentence] or to clarify meaning
    • “sic”: indicates errors in a source
  • See Palmquist page 180-181 for punctuation conventions
examples of modification
Examples of modification
  • The writing center is open from 9 am to 8 pm and serves all TAMUCC students.
    • The writing center … serves all TAMUCC students.
  • Directly from the book: “Your careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present arguments that might be more pointed than you might want to make on your own.” 
    • At use in our presentation: A “careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present [an] argumen[t] that might be more pointed than you” would make (Palmquist 175).
  • In an interview with five year old Maddy, she discussed her father’s anger over her constant running in the house: “daddy was mad because I runned [sic] in the house and knocked over the table.”
paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
  • Paraphrasing a source means taking the meaning of a passage and putting it in your own words (Palmquist 135).
  • Do not use quotation marks
  • Do cite
  • MLA
    • Uses paraphrased sources as supporting evidence
  • APA
    • Prefers paraphrasing
    • Paraphrasing allows the distribution of information in a compact and concise manner
when paraphrasing do not
When paraphrasing, do not…
  • Copy another person’s work word for word!
  • Substitute synonyms for words in the original text!

This is considered plagiarism.

problems when substituting words
Problems when substituting words…
  • It may be too close to the original text
  • It may reflect the author’s “creative” use of language
  • It may distort the original meaning
  • It may be grammatically incorrect
effectively integrating sources
Effectively Integrating Sources
  • How do you create strong evidence?
  • The Quotation Sandwich

Idea + Quotation + Explanation = Evidence

Boeck

claim
Claim
  • Clearly state your claim – point – idea.

Anime is part of a cultural art that has existed for centuries and adapts to cultural shifts.

  • Find a quote that supports this.

Boeck

quote
Quote
  • Before using a quotation in your paper, you should introduce it.
  • Make a smooth transition from your own words to those of another source.
    • Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that “Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).
  • Avoid dropped quotes in a paper by using a signal phrase

Boeck

signal phrase
Signal Phrase
  • May Include:
    • Author’s name and a verb
    • Title of work

Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that “Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).

TIP: Read your sentence aloud without quotes to ensure an integrated quote.

Boeck

explain
Explain
  • Create a sentence that explains its significance
  • Show how it supports your claim
  • Explain how this supports the focus of your paper

Because of its adaptability, Anime’s popularity as a cultural art has endured as a separate art form since the nineteen thirties.

Boeck

make the sandwich
Make the Sandwich

Anime is part of a cultural art that has existed for centuries and adapts to cultural shifts. Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that“Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).Because of its adaptability, Anime’s popularity as a cultural art has endured as a separate art form since the nineteen thirties.

works cited
Works Cited

Boeck, Dawn. Integrating Sources. Paper. Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi, 2011. Print.

Gladden, Jonathan. Animania: Inside the World of Japanese Animation and Comic Art. Paper. Ohio State University, 1997. Web.  

Palmquist, Mike. The Bedford Researcher. 2nded. Boston, NY: Bedford/ St. Martin\'s, 2006. Print.

references
References

Boeck, D. (2011). Integrating sources. Informally published manuscript, Writing Center, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX.

Gladden, J. (1997). Animania: inside the world of Japanese animation and comic art. Informally published manuscript, Advanced Computing Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from www.gladdengraphics.com/academics/ResearchPapers/Animania.pdf

Palmquist, M. (2006). The Bedford researcher. (2nd ed. ed.). Boston, NY: Bedford/ St. Martin\'s.

integration activity
Integration Activity!

Take a source for your current paper, find a quote, and make a sandwich.

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