Integrating sources
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Integrating Sources. How can I incorporate sources into my paper?. Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing. Quoting. Using the exact words from the source Supports an argument Compares/contrasts opinions Highlights something particularly powerful

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Integrating Sources

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Integrating sources

Integrating Sources


How can i incorporate sources into my paper

How can I incorporate sources into my paper?

  • Quoting

  • Paraphrasing

  • Summarizing


Quoting

Quoting

  • Using the exact words from the source

  • Supports an argument

  • Compares/contrasts opinions

  • Highlights something particularly powerful

  • In quotation marks and from a clearly identified source


What portion of a text should i quote

What portion of a text should I quote?

  • Most people who begin researched writing quote far too much. It’s tempting to pay too much homage to experts.

  • Knowing when to quote the experts and how to integrate their ideas establishes your role as an authoritative writer.

    GENERAL RULE:

  • Ideally, no more than 25 percent of your paper should be direct quotations.

    • Paraphrase as much as you can (more on this later).


An example of too much quoting

An example of too much quoting:

According to the United Nations Human Development Report 2002, “The number of wars between countries has dropped considerably… But civil conflicts are more damaging than ever. In the 1990s about 3.6 million people died in wars within states, and the number of refugees and internally displaced persons increased 50%.” “Fighting between and within states also causes massive refugee flows and displaces populations. At the end of 2000 more than 12 million were refugees.”

  • What else is wrong with this “paragraph”?


When is it important to quote

When is it important to quote?

  • When the language is especially vivid or striking.

    The soaring birthrate reinforced the notion that a woman’s place was in the home as tender of the hearth and guardian of the children. “Of all the accomplishments of the American woman,” [a 1950s-era] Life cover story proclaimed, “the one she brings off with the most spectacular success is having babies.”


When is it important to quote1

When is it important to quote?

  • When there are two sides and you want to let each speak for itself.

    Some of the research currently being conducted at Rockefeller could lead to advances in the fight against heart ailments, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis and other afflictions. “We're trying to make animal life, human life and plant life better, and unfortunately [animal-based research] is all we have now,” veterinarian Karen Sokol says.

    But this opinion is not shared by everyone. A small, but growing minority of Americans believe that using animals to meet even the most pressing human needs is cruel and unnecessary. “On a moral level it's all unacceptable because you can't justify gain based on exploitation,” says Ingrid Newkirk, co-founder of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA).


When is it important to quote2

When is it important to quote?

  • When information is technical and expertise is necessary.

    “Size matters. Materials at the nanoscale should be considered new particles and have to go through new safety assessments," says Michael Hansen, senior staff scientist at Consumers Union. "Right now, it's assumed that if a material has been tested for bulk applications, it's safe. But when you reduce things to such small sizes, their behavior and surface area can change drastically. You can't assume that something safe at the macro scale is safe at the nano scale.”

  • Still, what is wrong here?


When is it important to quote3

When is it important to quote?

  • When you want to analyze the words and phrasing.

    Lockwood reveals that the fact that people, and especially women, exist for him only as texts to contemplate and, in this way, to appropriate for his private fantasy life: “While enjoying a month of fine whether at the sea-coast, I was thrown into the company of a most fascinating creature, a real goddess in my eyes, as long as she took no notice of me.” The author gives us this single bit of background just as he is about to repeat the same scene several times over, first with Catherine Heathcliff and then with the ghost of her mother cast as the “fascinating creature.”


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

  • Using your own words to relay someone else’s information

  • Always connect back to your argument

  • Always document


Example

Example:

  • If I was writing a paper on the relationships between men and women in Their Eyes Were Watching God

  • “Janie learned what it felt like to be jealous. A little chunky girl took to picking a play out of Tea Cake in the fields and in the quarters” (Hurston 130).

  • Let’s paraphrase:

    While Tea Cake and Janie’s relationship starts off smoothly, not everything goes the way Janie expects. For the first time, Janie struggles with jealousy in a relationship (Hurston 130). She once again is not the person in control of her relationship, as was evident in her marriage to Joe.


Summarizing

Summarizing

  • When should you summarize?

    • Establish background

    • Describe information from several different sources

    • “Boil” one source down to its main ideas


Example1

Example

Their Eyes Were Watching God is a ground-breaking novel by Zora Neale Hurston. It depicts the life of a woman as she struggles to find what she’s looking for in life—whether it’s what her grandmother always told her she should want, or if it’s her heart’s desires (Hurston).


Consider sider s quote again

Consider Sider’s quote again:

According to the United Nations Human Development Report 2002, “The number of wars between countries has dropped considerably… But civil conflicts are more damaging than ever. In the 1990s about 3.6 million people died in wars within states, and the number of refugees and internally displaced persons increased 50%.” “Fighting between and within states also causes massive refugee flows and displaces populations. At the end of 2000 more than 12 million were refugees.”


What do you notice

What do you notice?

  • The writer quotes information he could easily paraphrase. There is no special wording, and the information is not so technical he could not rephrase it.

  • Instead of integrating his sources into his own rich writing, quotes are back to back (never, EVER EVER do this!).

  • Instead of seeking a way to further his argument while introducing the quote, Sider opts for “according to….” It’s good that we know where the first quote comes from, but you will need to seek stronger ways of introducing quotes.


Documentation and citation

Documentation and Citation

  • In-text vs. parenthetical

    • If you use the author’s name in the sentence, all you need in the parentheses is the page # (if there is one).

    • If you do not use the author’s name in the sentence, your documentation looks like this: “… and so on” (Hurston 64).

  • Pay attention to punctuation!!


A little bit more

A Little Bit More

  • Don’t just plop the quote into the paper.

  • Work it into a sentence

  • Surround it with context

    Set-Up the Quote: What is the context of the quote?

    Evidence: The Quote Itself.

    Analysis: How does the quote connect to your thesis?

    Transition: Connecting one source of evidence to the next, or to the next paragraph.


Signal phrases in mla

Model Signal Phrases:

“In the words of researchers Long and McKinzie…”

“As Paul Rudnick has noted…”

“Melinda Stuart, mother of a child killed by a drunk driver, points out…”

“…,writes Michelle Moore, …”

NOTE: Never use “says”

Verbs in Signal Phrases:

acknowledges admits

agrees asserts

believes claims

comments confirms

contends declares

denies disputes

emphasizes endorses

grants illustrates

implies notes

observes points out

reasons refutes

suggests writes

Complete list: Hacker, Diana. A Writer’s Reference. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. p. 336.

Signal Phrases in MLA


In text citation

In-Text Citation

  • also known as parenthetical documentation.

  • used to cite borrowed words, facts, or ideas at the point they are used in the document.

  • used in conjunction with and not as a replacement for the Works Cited page.


Use an in text citation when

Use an In-Text Citation When

  • You use an idea from a source. The idea is not originally yours. It belongs to the author(s) of the source and must be cited.

  • You paraphrase or summarize a source (even if you change the word order and replace words with synonyms).

  • You directly quote a source.

  • You use information that is not common knowledge.


Why do we need parenthetical citations

Why do we need parenthetical citations?

It is important to give credit to the sources you use. When you copy words and ideas that are not yours and use them without giving credit, it is called plagiarism.


Doesn t the works cited page give credit

Doesn’t the “Works Cited”page give credit?

Yes, the Works Cited page at the end of your paper is important in giving credit to the sources you used.However,it doesn’t give your readerinformation on what exactly you used from each source or exactly where you found the material.


Citing sources when you have all the information

Citing sources when you have all the information

  • The most common type of credit (citation) lists the author’s last name and the page number in parentheses.

    In 1900, the worst hurricane in the United States history hit Galveston, Texas. “A storm surge almost two stories high broke over the city, causing 20- foot floods and more than 8,000 deaths” (Skelton 4).

  • If you already name the author in your report, just include the page number in parentheses.

  • In Hurricane Force, Michael Miles explains that cool air draws heat and moisture from warm bodies of water to form a storm (22).


Citing sources when some of the information is missing

Citing sources when some of the information is missing

  • Some sources do not list an author. In those cases, use the title and page number.

    The winds of a hurricane are most violent around the eye (“Hurricane Season” 7).

  • Some sources do not use page numbers. In those cases, list just the author.

    Hurricanes in the Indian Ocean are called cyclones (Nealy).

  • If a source does not list the author or page number, use the title.

    In Southeast Asia, they are called typhoons (“Big Wind”).


Parenthetical citations how often to give citations

Parenthetical Citations:How Often to Give Citations

  • When several facts in a row within one paragraph all come from the same page of a source, use one citation to cover them all. Place the citation after the last fact.

  • The citation MUST be in the same paragraph as the facts!


Formatting the paper

Formatting the paper

  • Choose a standard, easily readable font (e.g. Times New Roman) and type size (e.g. 12 point)

  • Do not right justify the margins

  • Use a header to insert your last name and page number for each page (Bowen 1)

  • Print on one side of the paper only

  • MARGINS:

    • Except for page numbers, 1 inch margins all around

    • Indent the first line of each paragraph

    • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs, only indent

  • SPACING:

    • Double-space throughout, including quotations and works cited! No extra spacing required (see above).

    • 1 space after a period or other concluding punctuation


  • Format continued

    Format (continued)…

    • HEADING AND TITLE:

      • NO TITLE PAGE in MLA format!


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