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Integrating Sources. by Worth Weller. TOC. Why use sources? What makes a good quote? How long should a quote be? How to “integrate” quotes How to avoid “dropped” quotes How to shorten quotes Using “block quotes” A few notes on paragraphs A few words on grammar, punctuation and citing.

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Integrating sources l.jpg

Integrating Sources

by Worth Weller


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TOC

  • Why use sources?

  • What makes a good quote?

  • How long should a quote be?

  • How to “integrate” quotes

  • How to avoid “dropped” quotes

  • How to shorten quotes

  • Using “block quotes”

  • A few notes on paragraphs

  • A few words on grammar, punctuation and citing


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Why use sources?

  • College papers are written in your own words.

  • In fact, 66 to 75 percent of your paper needs to be your own views and thoughts.

  • Quotes from sources are simply used to back up, prove, and illustrate your own thinking

  • The reason you use sources is to show the reader that your opinions are informed by:

  • What you read

  • And what others have said about your subject.


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What makes a good quote?

  • When you are reading, you are looking for “arguments” that will support (or oppose) your own arguments

  • You are looking for strong, powerful wording of articulately presented ideas.

  • Stay away from dates and amounts

  • Quote only exciting language, language that is controversial, or language that would lose its impact or clarity as a paraphrase.



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How long should a quote be?

  • Short!

  • Readers don’t like long quotes - they don’t know why you are using them

  • Quote just one sentence at a time

  • Often half a quote is better than a full quote!



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How to “integrate” quotes

  • Direct quotations should always have three parts:

  • Quote: Material taken directly from the author

  • Tag: Material that explains the following or preceding is a quote

  • Source: Material that documents the source, such as page numbers




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How to avoid “dropped” quotes

  • All quotes should have some form of “tag” information in the form of a subject and verb that comes before or after the quote

  • In other words, quotes need to be “integrated” into a larger sentence of your own.



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How to shorten quotes

  • Ellipses (space dot space dot space dot space) indicate that some unnecessary words have been left out of a quotation.

  • When using ellipses, remember that:

  • when you quote just a WORD or SHORT PHRASE, no ellipsis is necessary;

  • you do not use an ellipsis to indicate that you have left something out of the BEGINNING of a sentence;

  • missing words from the END or somewhere in the MIDDLE of a sentence need to be indicated with an ellipsis



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Using block quotes

  • Quotes more than four lines long need to be set up as “block quotes.”

  • Use them very sparingly:

  • Readers don’t like them

  • Profs think you are “padding” your paper

  • They rob you of page length



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A few notes on paragraphs

  • Never begin a paragraph with a quote - paragraphs begin with transitions and topic sentences.

  • Never end a paragraph with a quote - robs you of page length

  • Use the quote in the middle of your paragraph to illustrate and support your topic sentence

  • Then reflect on how that quote proves your point, explain what the quote means or make some other comment.



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Some words on Grammar, Punctuation, and Citing

  • Sometimes you have to change a word in a quote to make it fit the grammar of our whole sentence - show this with brackets.

  • Commas always go inside the quote marks; semi-colons, exclamation points and question marks are outside unless they are the author’s

  • Except where citing, periods go inside the quote marks.

  • Use single quote marks to indicate quotes within quotes

  • Parenthetical citations come at the very end.



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Summary

  • Quote sparingly - do your own writing

  • Quote only the good stuff

  • Use tag material to integrate the quote into a larger sentence

  • Never begin a paragraph with a quote

  • Never end a paragraph with a quote.


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