1 pharynx
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1. Pharynx. cavity not involved in digesting food passageway leads to stomach connection between nasal & oral cavities to larynx & esophagus. 3 parts to pharynx. nasopharynx - connects w/ nasal cavity oropharynx - passageway food moving down & air moving into trachea

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1. Pharynx

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1 pharynx

1. Pharynx

  • cavity

  • not involved in digesting food

  • passageway leads to stomach

  • connection between nasal & oral cavities to larynx & esophagus


3 parts to pharynx

3 parts to pharynx

  • nasopharynx- connects w/ nasal cavity

  • oropharynx- passageway food moving down & air moving into trachea

  • laryngopharynx- passageway to esophagus


3 stages of swallowing

3 Stages of Swallowing

  • 1st stage:

    • voluntary

    • food chewed- mixed w/ saliva

    • rolled into mass by tongue- BOLUS- forced into pharynx


2 nd stage swallowing reflex stimulated

2nd Stage- swallowing reflex stimulated

  • food is prevented entrance to nasal cavity

  • epiglottis slaps shut over larynx to keep food from going down trachea

  • tongue seals off oral cavity

  • different muscle actions open esophagus & forces food down it


1 pharynx

epiglottis

trachea


3 rd stage

3rd Stage

  • breathing momentarily inhibited

  • peristalsis transports food down into & through esophagus

  • choking occurs when food lodges in larynx

  • Heimleich maneuver can dislodge food


Heimleich maneuver

Heimleich maneuver


2 esophagus

2. Esophagus

  • straight tube

  • ~ 25 cm long

  • food passageway from pharynx to stomach

  • goes thru opening in diaphragm

  • contains mucous glands w/ secretions that moisten & lubricate inner lining


Peristalsis

Peristalsis

  • wavelike motion propels food down tubular structures

  • contraction of muscle occur above food & relaxation below it


1 pharynx

  • hiatal hernia

  • acid reflux

  • Barrett’s esophagus


1 pharynx

  • Caution!


3 stomach

3. Stomach

  • j-shaped, pouched organ

  • ~ 1 L capacity

  • fxns: receives food from esophagus, mixes food w/ gastric juices, begins protein digestion, limited absorption, moves food into small intestines


Regions of stomach

Regions of stomach:

  • cardiac-

  • fundus- temp storage area

  • body- main part

  • pylorus- approaches small intestines


1 pharynx

  • inner lining contains gastric glands w/ 3 types secretory cells:

    • mucous cells- secrete mucus w/ other secretions keeping stomach from digesting itself

    • chief cells- secrete digestive enzymes- pepsinogen

    • parietal cells- release HCl & intrinsic factors

      all these form GASTRIC JUICE (2-3 L/day)


Ulcer

Ulcer


1 pharynx

inner lining= RUGAE- disappears when stomach is distended

ulcer is open sore in the lining of stomach

may be caused by presence of H pylori bacteria


1 pharynx

  • pepsinogen is released & when hits HCl forms PEPSIN which digests almost ALL types of protein

  • intrinsic factors aid in vitamin B12 absorption in small intestines

  • mostly digestion occurs in stomach, but some absorption of water, salts, and drugs does occur


1 pharynx

mechanical & chemical digestion begin here

resulting in a semi-paste called CHYME

rate at which this enters sm intestine depends of type of food

liquids pass thru quickly

fatty foods 3-6 hours

proteins & carbs pass thru more quickly


Vomiting

Vomiting

  • medulla oblongata- vomiting center

  • body prepares for the process by closing off nasal cavity, trachea, contraction of diaphragm, contraction of abdominal muscles, etc


4 pancreas

4. Pancreas

  • dual fxn- endocrine gland & digestive gland

  • closely associated w/ small intestine in the curve of duodenum

  • fxn: release pancreatic juice

  • juice contains enzymes that digest carbs, fats, nucleic acids, proteins


1 pharynx

  • PANCREATITIS- condition where there is a blockage in release of juice

  • essentially pancreas digests itself


5 liver gallbladder

5. Liver & Gallbladder

  • largest internal organ in body

  • inferior to diaphragm on right side of body (under ribs)

  • 4 lobed organ (2)

  • connected to sm intestines by ducts

  • main fxn: manufacture bile salts


Functions

Functions:

  • imp role in carb metabolism

    • regulates glucose in bld

  • imp in lipid metabolism- converting subst into fats (bile salts)

  • imp in protein metabolism


1 pharynx

  • produce plasma proteins

  • destroy bacteria/old rbc & wbc


1 pharynx

  • produce enzymes that break down poisons that are harmful to body

  • stores certain vitamins/minerals needed by body

  • also stores poisons that can’t be broken down & excreted

  • activates vitamin D


Diseases of liver

Diseases of Liver

  • cirrhosis

  • hepatitis

  • cancer


1 pharynx

  • surrounds gallbladder- small, green sac embedded in liver

  • stores & concentrates bile


1 pharynx

  • gallstones

  • gallbladder attacks


6 small intestine

6. Small Intestine

  • major digestive organ

  • ~ 21 feet long

  • 3 subdivisions:

    • duodenum- ~10” long (25cm)

      diameter: ~ 2” (5cm)

      C-shaped around the pancreas

      B. jejunum- ~ 8’ long

      greater diameter

      thicker walls, more vascularized


1 pharynx

C. ileum- ~ 12’ long

hard to distinguish between jejunum & ileum


1 pharynx

  • mesentery- thin membrane that suspends the portions of the intestines from walls

  • contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels


1 pharynx

  • only processes small amount of food at a time so pyloric sphincter muscle considered gatekeeper

  • produces enzymes to digest food (w/ help of pancreatic enzymes & bile)


1 pharynx

  • enzymes secreted by mucosal cells break down proteins, carbs, fats

  • wall of intestine has many tiny projections called villi

  • microvilli project off the villi

  • the epithelial lining is replaced every 3 to 6 days

  • food absorption occurs thru these structures


1 pharynx

  • carries on mixing movements & peristalsis

  • chyme moves slowly; 3-10 hours

  • if wall becomes distended/irritated, a peristaltic rush pushes contents to large intestine so quickly that water, nutrients, & electrolytes aren’t absorbed - diarrhea


8 large intestine

8. Large Intestine

  • ~ 5’ length

  • greater diameter than small int

  • fxns:

    1. dry out indigestible food residue by absorbing water

    2. eliminate residues from body as feces


1 pharynx

  • little or no digestive fxns

  • no secretions except mucus by goblet cells in wall

    • protects inner wall

    • binds fecal matter

  • normally absorbs water & electrolytes

  • many bacteria, intestinal flora, inhabit organ (100 trillion)

  • help break down substances that aren’t by our digestive system


1 pharynx

  • 4 principle regions:

    • cecum- beginning; dilated pouchlike

      contains appendix (appendicitis)

    • colon- subdivided into 4 parts:

      a. ascending colon- right side

      b. transverse colon- across

      c. descending colon- left side

      d. sigmoid colon- s-shaped

      3. rectum

      4. anal canal


1 pharynx

  • mixing & peristalsis occurs but slower

  • 2-3 mass movements happen per day

  • forces feces into lower 2 regions until eliminated

  • if feces stay in too long leads to constipation


Major prob colon cancer

major prob: colon cancer


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