Cellular respiration
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CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Cellular respiration is defined as the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to form ATP ( Adenosin Tri-Phosphate ) When ATP is split into ADP (adenosine diphosphate ) and phosphate, energy is released. Cell respiration. ADP + phosphate. ATP.

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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Cellular respiration

CELLULAR RESPIRATION


Cellular respiration

  • Cellular respiration is defined as the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to form ATP (Adenosin Tri-Phosphate)

  • When ATP is split into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and phosphate, energy is released

Cell respiration

ADP +

phosphate

ATP

Active cell process


Glycolisis

Glycolisis

  • The main organic compounds from which energy is released are carbohydrates (glucose) and lipids. These are the substrates.

  • The chain of reactions that take place in the cytoplasm of the cell to convert glucose to pyruvate is called glycolysis.

  • As a result, a small amount of ATP is produced.

    glucose  pyruvate

    ADP ATP

    Occurs in almost all organisms, in aerobic or anaerobic cell respiration


Anaerobic cell respiration

Anaerobic cell respiration

  • Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate can go through one of the following paths:

    pyruvate  lactate

    Occurs in humans and some bacteria in anaerobic cell respiration

    pyruvate  ethanol +CO2

    Occurs in yeast in anaerobic cell respiration

  • No more ATP is produced

  • These substances are toxic in excess


Aerobic cell respiration

Aerobic cell respiration

  • In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis can be oxidized to release more energy.

  • In eukaryotic cells this occurs in the mitochondrion.

  • During this process more ATP is produced.

  • Carbon dioxide and water are also produced.

    MITOCHONDRION

    Glucose glycolysispyruvate

    Oxygen

H2O

CO2


Checking our knowledge

Checking our knowledge

  • Cell respiration is:

    • Taking air into our lungs

    • Removing carbon dioxide from the lungs

    • Use of ATP in cells

    • Controlled release of energy in cells

  • What are the products of glycolysis?

    • Glucose

    • Glucose and ATP

    • ATP and pyruvate

    • Glucose, ATP and pyruvate

  • Which substances are produced by yeast in anaerobic cell respiration?

    • Carbon dioxide and lactate

    • Carbon dioxide and ethanol

    • Lactate and ethanol

    • Carbon dioxide, lactate and ethanol

  • Where is pyruvate used and produced in a cell respiring aerobically?

    • Cytoplasm / cytoplasm

    • Cytoplams / mitochondrion

    • Mitochondrion /cytoplasm

    • Mitochondrion / mitochondrion


Cellular respiration

HL

ONLY


Questions for the group activity

Questions for the group activity

  • GROUP 1

    (2) Glycolysis:

    • Describe the complete process of glycolysis

    • Where glycolysis take place?

    • What is the net production of ATP of this process? Why?

    • Explain why NAD is needed for glycolysis

  • GROUP 2:

    (3) Krebs cycle

    • Describe the Krebs cycle

    • Where the Krebs cycle takes place?

    • What is the name of the reaction in which CO2 is removed?

    • What is the net production of ATP of this process? Why?

  • GROUP 3

    (1) Oxidation and reduction:

    • What is oxidation and reduction: give an example to show the processes

    • What are electron carriers in cells: explain how they work

      (4) Mitochondrion structure and function

    • Draw a mitochondria and label its parts

    • What can be found in the matrix of a mitochondrion?

    • How can you explain the presence of DNA and ribosomes in the Mitochondria?

  • GROUP 4

    (5) Oxidative phosphorilation

    • Describe the process of oxidative phosphorilation (electron transport system)

    • Why is oxygen important in this process?

    • How is the structure of a mitochondria related to its function?


Oxidation and reduction

Oxidation and Reduction

  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons from a substance

  • Reduction is the gain of electrons

    Example:

    NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

    sodium + hydrochloric sodium water

    hydroxide acid chloride

    In this equation:

    Sodium is oxidized, it gives away (losses) electrons

    Chlorine is reduced, it receives (gains) electrons


Electron carriers in cells

Electron carriers in cells

  • Substances that accept and give up electrons as required

    • NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

    • NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

    • FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)

  • How it works:

    NAD + 2 electrons NAD-2

    Processes:

    NAD+ + 2 H NADH + H+

    NAD+ + 2 H+ + 2 e- NADH + H+

reduced

The reduced substance

provides H atoms


Cellular respiration

  • Oxidation and reduction can also occur through the loss or gain of atoms of oxygen.

    C7 H15 ----- CH3 + ½ O2 C7H15 --- CH2 OH

    n - octane n- octanol

    NO2- + ½ O2  NO3-

  • Adding oxygen atoms is oxidation

  • Losing oxygen atoms is reduction.


Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Glucose

Fructose

ATP

ADP

4 ATPs used

2 ATPs produced

2 NADH + H+ produced

Fructose Phosphate

P

ATP

ADP

Fructose Bi Phosphate

P

P

P

P

Glyceraldehyde 3-P

Glyceraldehyde 3-P

NAD+

NADH+ H+

NAD+

NADH+ H+

ATP

ADP

ATP

ADP

1-3diphosphoGlycerate

P

P

P

P

1-3 diphosphoGlycerate

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ADP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

Pyruvate


The krebs cycle

The Krebs Cycle

Pyruvate

NAD+

NADH + H+

CO2

3 (2) CO2

1 (2) ATP

3 (2) H2O

4 (2) NADH + H+

1( 2) FADH2


Mitochondrion structure and function

Mitochondrion structure and function

  • Structures:

    • Outer smooth membrane

    • Inner membrane with cristae

    • Matrix

      • Enzymes

      • Ribosomes

      • Loops of DNA


Oxidative phosphorilation

Oxidative phosphorilation

  • Converts the energy in NADH + H+and FADH2 to ATP

  • It occurs in the mitochondrion membrane

Process:

Electrons are transferred from NADH, through a series of electron carriers, to O2.

The electron carriers are proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.


Oxidative phosphorilation1

Oxidative phosphorilation

  • Transfer of electrons by these carriers generates a proton (H+) gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.


Oxidative phosphorilation2

Oxidative phosphorilation

  • When H+ spontaneously diffuses back across the inner mitochondrial membrane, ATP is synthesized.

  • The large positive free energy of ATP synthesis is overcome by the even larger negative free energy associated with proton flow down the concentration gradient.


Totals in respiration

Totals in respiration

  • Glycolysis: 2 ATP

  • Krebs cycle: 2 ATP

  • Oxidative phosphorilation: 32 ATP


Checking our knowledge1

Checking our knowledge:

  • What separates the matrix of the mitochondrion from the cytoplasm around the mitochondrion?

    • One wall

    • One membrane

    • Two membranes

    • One wall and one membrane

  • The mitochondrion matrix contains 70S ribosomes whereas the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains 80S ribosomes. Which of these hypotheses is consistent with this observation?

    • Protein is synthesized in the mitochondrion

    • Ribosomes in mitochondria have evolved from ribosomes in bacteria

    • Ribosomes are produced by aerobic cell respiration

  • State the name of a compound in cell respiration that can:

    • Accept hydrogen atoms

    • Accept phosphate

  • Explain the reasons for a much lower ATP yield per glucose from anaerobic cell respiration than from aerobic cell respiration


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