Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. The cell process in which individual cells construct proteins. Why do we need proteins?. Cell structure Cells are made up of 80% proteins Cell processes Hormones Enzymes Cell transport (cell membrane). What do we need for protein synthesis?. DNA

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Protein Synthesis

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Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

The cell process in which individual cells construct proteins.


Why do we need proteins

Why do we need proteins?

  • Cell structure

    • Cells are made up of 80% proteins

  • Cell processes

    • Hormones

    • Enzymes

    • Cell transport (cell membrane)


What do we need for protein synthesis

What do we need for protein synthesis?

DNA

contains the template for making mRNA during a process called transcription.

DNA stays only in the nucleus.


Protein synthesis

RNA

  • mRNA -- messenger RNA

    • Makes a copy of DNA and takes it into the cytoplasm.

  • tRNA – transfer RNA

    • Uses the code from mRNA and collects amino acids found in the cytoplasm and takes them to the ribosomes.

  • rRNA – ribosomal RNA

    • Uses the amino acids and makes the proteins. This occurs in the ribosomes.


Ribosomes

Ribosomes

  • Site of protein synthesis.


Let s compare protein synthesis to building a house

Let’s compare protein synthesis to building a house.

  • Lot – where house is built

  • Architect- plans

  • Materials – wood, nails

  • Contractor - Uses plans to buy materials

  • Builders – Uses plans to build house

  • Final Product - House

------Ribosome

-----DNA

-----Amino Acids

-----mRNA

----- mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

-----Proteins


Process of protein synthesis

Process of protein synthesis

  • In the Nucleus - DNA – blueprint

  • mRNA – copies DNA – this is called transcription

    • Takes this copy to tRNA and rRNA

  • In the cytoplasm – tRNA uses mRNA’s template to collect amino acids and takes them to the ribosomes

  • In the ribosomes – rRNA decodes mRNA for making proteins and interacts with tRNA to make proteins.

  • this is called translation


What is needed for protein synthesis

What is needed for protein synthesis

  • Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.

  • Chains of amino acids make a protein.

  • 3 bases in a row is called a codon – amino acid

  • The opposite 3 bases in a row is called an anticodon.


The two steps in protein synthesis are

The two steps in protein synthesis are:

  • Transcription- what does this mean?

  • Translation – what does this mean?


Transcription

Transcription

  • DNA ►mRNA

  • Location = nucleus

  • Steps

  • a. Enzyme binds to DNA, unzips it

  • b. mRNA copy of gene made

  • from DNA template

  • *U replaces T in RNA


Translation

Translation

  • Steps of Translation

  • 1. mRNA moves to cytoplasm,

  • binds to ribosome

  • 2. tRNAanticodon brings the amino acid to the ribosome

  • 3. rRNA assembles the protein by reading mRNA and directing tRNA.


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