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Protein Synthesis. The cell process in which individual cells construct proteins. Why do we need proteins?. Cell structure Cells are made up of 80% proteins Cell processes Hormones Enzymes Cell transport (cell membrane). What do we need for protein synthesis?. DNA

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protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

The cell process in which individual cells construct proteins.

why do we need proteins
Why do we need proteins?
  • Cell structure
    • Cells are made up of 80% proteins
  • Cell processes
    • Hormones
    • Enzymes
    • Cell transport (cell membrane)
what do we need for protein synthesis

What do we need for protein synthesis?

DNA

contains the template for making mRNA during a process called transcription.

DNA stays only in the nucleus.

slide4
RNA
  • mRNA -- messenger RNA
    • Makes a copy of DNA and takes it into the cytoplasm.
  • tRNA – transfer RNA
    • Uses the code from mRNA and collects amino acids found in the cytoplasm and takes them to the ribosomes.
  • rRNA – ribosomal RNA
    • Uses the amino acids and makes the proteins. This occurs in the ribosomes.
ribosomes
Ribosomes
  • Site of protein synthesis.
let s compare protein synthesis to building a house
Let’s compare protein synthesis to building a house.
  • Lot – where house is built
  • Architect- plans
  • Materials – wood, nails
  • Contractor - Uses plans to buy materials
  • Builders – Uses plans to build house
  • Final Product - House

------Ribosome

-----DNA

-----Amino Acids

-----mRNA

----- mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

-----Proteins

process of protein synthesis
Process of protein synthesis
  • In the Nucleus - DNA – blueprint
  • mRNA – copies DNA – this is called transcription
    • Takes this copy to tRNA and rRNA
  • In the cytoplasm – tRNA uses mRNA’s template to collect amino acids and takes them to the ribosomes
  • In the ribosomes – rRNA decodes mRNA for making proteins and interacts with tRNA to make proteins.
  • this is called translation
what is needed for protein synthesis
What is needed for protein synthesis
  • Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.
  • Chains of amino acids make a protein.
  • 3 bases in a row is called a codon – amino acid
  • The opposite 3 bases in a row is called an anticodon.
the two steps in protein synthesis are
The two steps in protein synthesis are:
  • Transcription- what does this mean?
  • Translation – what does this mean?
transcription
Transcription
  • DNA ►mRNA
  • Location = nucleus
  • Steps
  • a. Enzyme binds to DNA, unzips it
  • b. mRNA copy of gene made
  • from DNA template
  • *U replaces T in RNA
translation
Translation
  • Steps of Translation
  • 1. mRNA moves to cytoplasm,
  • binds to ribosome
  • 2. tRNAanticodon brings the amino acid to the ribosome
  • 3. rRNA assembles the protein by reading mRNA and directing tRNA.
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