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Matter. When learning nomenclature we first need to recognize the type of matter we are representing: Pure substances Mixtures Elements or Compounds Solutions or Heterogeneous eg . Au (s) eg . NaCl (s) eg . NaCl ( aq ) eg . oil + water

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Matter
Matter

  • When learning nomenclature we first need to recognize the type of matter we are representing:

    Pure substancesMixtures

    Elements or CompoundsSolutionsor Heterogeneous

    eg. Au (s)eg. NaCl(s)eg. NaCl(aq)eg. oil + water

    He (g) Na2CO3 (s) HCl(aq) rocks + sand


Inorganic

Nomenclature


Inorganic nomenclature of elements
Inorganic Nomenclature of Elements

Use your periodic table to help to recognize and learn the names and chemical symbols of the elements.

eg. Element #27 is the metal cobalt.

Note - There are seven “diatomic” non metallic elements that are represented as follows: H2 , O2 , N2 , F2 , Cl2 , Br2 , I2

remember them by: HOFBrINCl


Practice quiz 1 use a periodic table to help complete this chart
Practice Quiz #1 – Use a Periodic Table to help complete this chart

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*Some elements are stable and do not easily form compounds

Some metals have more than one charge and are called “multivalent”.

Metals are called cations and are POSITIVELY charged.

Non metals are called anions and are NEGATIVELY charged.


Compounds binary
Compounds – this chart“Binary”

  • If two elements join together, a BINARY compound results that is either Ionicor Molecular in nature.

  • Eg. Metal + nonmetal = IONIC compound

  • Na+ Cl-NaClsodium chloride

  • Mg2+ N 3-Mg3N2 magnesium nitride

  • All ionic compounds have two halves with the positive ion or “cation” written and named first followed by the negative ion or “anion” written and named second. Binary compounds generally end with the suffix “ide”and subscripts are used to ensure that the overall compound has NO NET charge.


Writing chemical formulas

Writing Chemical Formulas this chart

Write combining capacity (valence number) above each chemical symbol.

Criss cross the numbers and reduce subscripts to lowest terms

Eg.Barium nitride

Ba+2N-3 Ba+2N-3

Ba3N2


Compounds molecular
Compounds - this chartMolecular

  • When two non metals form a binarymolecular compound the suffix is still “ide” but we use the prefix system to identify the subscripts.

    Eg. CO2 carbon dioxide

    N2O4dinitrogentetroxide

    Prefixes

    1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta,

    6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona, 10=deca

    Note - if the 1st nonmetal has a “1” subscript no prefix is used


Multivalent metal ions
Multivalent Metal Ions this chart

  • Some metals exhibit more than one charge and are named using the IUPAC (Stock/Roman numeral) system (preferred) or the Classical system (Latin root name & suffix “ous or ic”)

  • IUPACClassical

  • eg. Fe3+ iron(III) or ferric (higher charge)

    Fe2+ iron (II) or ferrous (lower charge)

    Nomenclature examples

    FeO iron (II) oxide, FeCl3 iron (III) chloride

    (ferrous oxide ) (ferric chloride)


Other latin names
Other Latin Names this chart

  • Fe = ferrum (valence: 2,3)

  • Cu = cuprum(valence: 1,2)

  • Au =aurum(valence: 1,3)

  • Hg = hydrargentum(valence: 1,2)

  • Sn = stannum(valence: 2,4)

  • Pb = plumbum(valence: 2,4)

    ** Use this system of naming only for fyi


Practice quiz 2
Practice Quiz #2 this chart

** note that this IONIC compound is NOT binary but TERNARY (3 or more elements) and is named differently. It contains a “polyatomic ion”.


Ternary ionic compounds
“Ternary” this chartIonic Compounds

  • Ionic compounds with 3 or more elements in them contain Polyatomic ions.


Revised ternary compounds

“Revised Ternary” Compounds this chart

Polyatomic ions can change the number of oxygens in their structure as well as the suffix

Per__ate, ____ate, ____ite, hypo___ite

(ClO4) 1- (ClO3) 1- (ClO2) 1- (ClO) 1- perchlorate chlorate chlorite hypochlorite

1 extra O normal 1 less O 2 less O

Notice the name changes but the charge remains the same.


Hydrated ionic compounds
Hydrated Ionic compounds this chart

  • Some ionic compounds have trapped water inside the crystal lattice. We use the same prefixes to identify the # of water molecules.

  • Eg. CuSO4 · 5 H2O

  • ionic salt 5 trapped water

    copper(II) sulphatepentahydrate

    Practice: lithium chloride tetrahydrate

    Answer LiCl·4H2O


Practice quiz 3 ternary ionic compounds
Practice Quiz #3 “Ternary” Ionic Compounds this chart

  • To name the compound we name the 2 ions eg. Na2CO3 sodium carbonate 2 Na 1+, 1 (CO3) 2-


Nomenclature of acids
Nomenclature of Acids this chart

  • Arrhenius acids (“HA (aq)”) are homogeneous mixtures or solutions of a solute and a solvent and can be “binary”, “ternary” or “revised”

  • solute – compound starts with hydrogen (H+)

  • solvent – usually water “aq” (aqueous)

  • BINARY or “hydro” acids (no oxygen present) contain H+ plus one other nonmetal

  • eg. HCl(aq)hydrochloric acid

    prefix = hydro suffix is “ic”


Nomenclature of acids cont d
Nomenclature of Acids –cont’d this chart

  • Ternary /“oxy” acids start with hydrogen (“H+) and end with an oxyanion(polyatomic)

    Eg. H+, (ClO31- ) HClO3(aq) or “chloric acid”

  • this oxyanion is “normal” and has the suffix “ate” so the acid suffixwill be “ic”

  • If the oxyanion is “revised” and the suffix is “ite”, the acid suffix will be “ous”.

  • Eg. H+, (ClO)1-HClO(aq) or hypochlorousacid”

    Note – oxyanionprefixes are still included





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