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Matter. 7-5.1, 7-5.2. Matter. Everything around you is matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Atom. All objects are made of the same thing – atoms. Atom: the smallest part of an element that has the chemical properties of that element

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matter

Matter

7-5.1, 7-5.2

matter1
Matter
  • Everything around you is matter
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
slide3
Atom
  • All objects are made of the same thing – atoms.
  • Atom: the smallest part of an element that has the chemical properties of that element
  • Are tiny particles that are much too small to be seen with a classroom microscope
  • They have mass and take up space
element
Element
  • All matter on Earth is made up of elements
  • Element: a pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler substance
  • There are more than 100 known elements
  • Each element is made up of only one type of atom
molecule
Molecule
  • Two or more atoms can combine to form a molecule
  • Molecule: forms when two or more atoms are held together by a force called a chemical bond
  • May contain atoms of only one element (oxygen gas) but can also form when two or more different elements join together (water and carbon dioxide)
compound
Compound
  • Is a pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
  • Water and carbon dioxide are compounds
  • Compounds have different properties than the elements that form them
molecule vs compound
Molecule vs. Compound
  • All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds
  • Molecules that cannot be compounds: hydrogen gas (H2), oxygen gas (O2), nitrogen gas (N2)
    • Not compounds because they are formed by a single element
  • Examples of compounds (are also molecules): NaCl, CO2, H2O
    • Are compounds because they are formed by more than one element
    • Are molecules because they are two or more atoms joined chemically
pure substance
Pure Substance
  • Elements and compounds are both pure substances
  • Is a substance made up of only one kind of atom or molecule
  • Elements are made of only one kind of atom
  • Compounds are made up of more than one kind of atom, but only one kind of molecule
mixtures
Mixtures
  • Forms when two or more pure substances are combined physically
    • Substances do not change or combine chemically
    • They keep their own individual properties
  • Substances in mixtures can be separated by physical means
    • Three common methods to separate mixtures:
      • Sifting
      • Filtration
      • Evaporation
types of mixtures
Types of Mixtures
  • Heterogeneous mixture: not uniform throughout
    • Individual substances in such a mixture are easy to distinguish
      • Ex: granite
  • Homogeneous mixture: made up of substances that are evenly mixed
    • Cannot be visually distinguished
    • Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the particles are so small they cannot be easily seen
      • Ex: salt water
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