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Matter. 7-5.1, 7-5.2. Matter. Everything around you is matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Atom. All objects are made of the same thing – atoms. Atom: the smallest part of an element that has the chemical properties of that element

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Matter

Matter

7-5.1, 7-5.2


Matter1
Matter

  • Everything around you is matter

  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space


Atom

  • All objects are made of the same thing – atoms.

  • Atom: the smallest part of an element that has the chemical properties of that element

  • Are tiny particles that are much too small to be seen with a classroom microscope

  • They have mass and take up space


Element
Element

  • All matter on Earth is made up of elements

  • Element: a pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler substance

  • There are more than 100 known elements

  • Each element is made up of only one type of atom


Molecule
Molecule

  • Two or more atoms can combine to form a molecule

  • Molecule: forms when two or more atoms are held together by a force called a chemical bond

  • May contain atoms of only one element (oxygen gas) but can also form when two or more different elements join together (water and carbon dioxide)


Compound
Compound

  • Is a pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined

  • Water and carbon dioxide are compounds

  • Compounds have different properties than the elements that form them


Molecule vs compound
Molecule vs. Compound

  • All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds

  • Molecules that cannot be compounds: hydrogen gas (H2), oxygen gas (O2), nitrogen gas (N2)

    • Not compounds because they are formed by a single element

  • Examples of compounds (are also molecules): NaCl, CO2, H2O

    • Are compounds because they are formed by more than one element

    • Are molecules because they are two or more atoms joined chemically


Pure substance
Pure Substance

  • Elements and compounds are both pure substances

  • Is a substance made up of only one kind of atom or molecule

  • Elements are made of only one kind of atom

  • Compounds are made up of more than one kind of atom, but only one kind of molecule


Mixtures
Mixtures

  • Forms when two or more pure substances are combined physically

    • Substances do not change or combine chemically

    • They keep their own individual properties

  • Substances in mixtures can be separated by physical means

    • Three common methods to separate mixtures:

      • Sifting

      • Filtration

      • Evaporation


Types of mixtures
Types of Mixtures

  • Heterogeneous mixture: not uniform throughout

    • Individual substances in such a mixture are easy to distinguish

      • Ex: granite

  • Homogeneous mixture: made up of substances that are evenly mixed

    • Cannot be visually distinguished

    • Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the particles are so small they cannot be easily seen

      • Ex: salt water


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