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Cartography. Map Making. What is the art of making maps called? Cartography – the art of making maps. What is a Map ?. A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size. Lagrange Middle School.

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Map making

Map Making

What is the art of making maps called?

Cartography – the art of making maps

What is a map

What is a Map ?

  • A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size.

Lagrange middle school

Lagrange Middle School

Uses of maps what do we use maps for

Uses of MapsWhat do we use Maps for?

  • Maps are used for:

  • Navigation : To find places

  • Direction to travel

  • Determine distance

  • Determine Size

  • Visually display data

Different types of maps

Different types of maps

  • Types of Maps

  • Topographic map –

    • Shows elevation of the land

    • Shows 3 dimensional ups and downs on 2 dimensional surface

  • Population density –

    How many people live in

    an area (crowdedness).

    Road maps, School Maps,

    Weather Maps, Etc…

What is on a proper map

What is on a proper map?

  • What is on a Proper Map?

  • Title –

    • Tells what map you are looking at.

  • Key / Legend

    Shows representations of objects on the map.

  • Scale –

    • Shows distance on a map.

What is on a proper map1

What is on a proper map?

  • Compass –

    • gives direction (N,S,E,W)

      WE not EW to get out of the woods.

  • Landmarks/features –

    • objects such as mountains, buildings, parking lots ect.

  • Roads with names –

    • roads are labeled to clarify which roads you are looking at

  • Latitude and longitude

    • For navigation

Latitude and longitude

Latitude and Longitude

  • How do we tell which is which?

What is latitude

What is Latitude?

  • Latitude is the Measure of distance north and south of the equator. (Laddertude, Flatitude)

  • What is its range?

  • Latitude range = 0° – 90° N or S

  • What are lines of equal latitude?

  • Parallels are lines of the same latitude

    running East and West on a map

    Parallel to the Equator

    What is 0 Degrees Latitude?

  • Equator - 0° latitude

  • Halfway between North

    and South pole

Other notable latitudes

Other notable Latitudes

North Pole: 90° N

Arctic Circle: 66.5° N

Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N

Equator: 0° Latitude

Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S

Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S

South Pole: 90° S

All #’s relate to 23.5

Earths Tilt



  • Longitude is the measure of

    distance east and west

    of the prime meridian

    Longitude Range?

  • Longitude Range 0° - 180° E or W

    Can only go half way around a circle

  • Lines of equal Longitude?

  • Meridian - Lines of equal Longitude.

    Run between North and South Pole

    Zero Degrees Longitude

  • Prime Meridian – 0° longitude

    Runs through Greenwich, England

  • What is the name for 180°

    The International Date Line is 180 Deg. Longitude

Why did we start using lat long

Why did we start using Lat / Long?

  • We started using Latitude / Longitude

    For ship navigation

Poor navigation = Bad Day

Our latitude longitude

Our Latitude / Longitude

  • Latitude / Longitude for Lagrangeville, NY?

  • Lat / Long for Lagrangeville, NY

  • 41 Deg. North / 74 Deg. West

To review

To Review

  • Latitude first, mustalways include N or S

  • Longitude second, must always include E or W

  • Start at equator and go N or S the number of degree

  • Start at the Prime meridian and go E or W the number of degrees

  • The intersection of the two lines is your location

Find these coordinates

Find these Coordinates

  • 40° N3° W

    • Madrid, Spain

  • 36° N112° W

    • Grand Canyon National Park

  • 0°N36° E

    • Nairobi, Kenya

  • 33° S70° E

    • Santiago, Chile

  • 28° N81° W

    • Disney World - Orlando, Florida

Time zones

Time Zones

Why do we have time zones

Why do we have Time Zones?

  • Time zones - Longitudinal belt in which all areas have the same local time

  • Why do we have time zones?

  • Since the Earth rotates, not all places are in daylight at the same time. To accommodate for this, different places are set to different times

Greenwich mean time gmt

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

  • Where is the starting point for time zones?

    The 0 point for time is 0° Longitude or the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

  • How far apart is each time zone?

  • Every time zone is 15 Deg. Apart.

  • 360° / 24 hours = 15° / hour

    What happens to time when we move to the West?

  • Every 15 deg. you move West we subtract 1 hr (Lazy Californians)

    What happens when we move to the East?

  • Every 15 degrees to the East we add 1 hour (Busy NYC)

International date line

International Date Line

  • Can we go back multiple days in time?

  • To stop us from going to far back or

    forward in time, the International Date

    line resets the day.

    What happens when we cross it?

  • Crossing to the west we add one day.

  • Crossing it to the east we subtract one day

  • It is the opposite of time zones!

    Why is the line not straight with the 180 deg meridian?

  • The line does not run perfectly North and South, it bends around islands in its path

Time zones in the united states

Time Zones in the United States

  • US time zones:

  • Eastern Standard Time

  • Central Standard Time

  • Mountain Standard Time

  • Pacific Standard Time

  • Alaska and Hawaii

Mapping the earth

Mapping the Earth

  • What is the best representation of the Earth?

  • The best representation of the Earth is a Globe.

  • What happens when we try to make a map the Earth?

    When the round surface of the Earth is projected on a flat surface changes occur that distort the size and shape of land and oceans

Mercator projection

Mercator Projection

  • Mercator Maps show correct shape of coastline

  • Distorts the size of land and water areas far from the equator

  • Greenland is made

    much larger then

    it really is.

Equal area projection

Equal Area Projection

  • Equal Area Maps shows area correctly

    Distorts the shapes

How to write a lab cover page g

How to write a lab – cover page (G)

How to write a lab purpose procedure g

How to write a lab– Purpose/Procedure (G)

How to write a lab data g

How to write a lab – data (G)

How to write a lab conclusion g

How to write a lab – conclusion (G)

Map lab conclusion g

Map lab Conclusion (G)

1.) What is a map?

2.) What is the study of maps known as?

3.) Name and explain 3 kinds of maps people would use?

4.) What are 8 important features on a map (define)

5.) What changed from your first map to your final map?

(Meaning did you add or change anything.)

6.) Explain 2 types of maps that try to fix the problem of distortion.



H i lab g secret code lab r

H.I. Lab (G) / Secret Code Lab (R)

  • Conclusion:

  • Define Latitude ?

  • Define parallels ? (in terms of latitude)

  • What is the zero point for Latitude ?

  • Define Longitude ?

  • Define Meridian ? (in terms of Longitude)

  • What is the zero point for Longitude ?

  • What are time zones, Why do we have them and how many degrees are between them?

  • What is the International Date Line, where is it andwhy do we have it ?

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