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Cartography. Map Making. What is the art of making maps called? Cartography – the art of making maps. What is a Map ?. A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size. Lagrange Middle School.

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Map Making

What is the art of making maps called?

Cartography – the art of making maps

What is a Map ?

  • A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size.

Lagrange Middle School

Uses of MapsWhat do we use Maps for?

  • Maps are used for:

  • Navigation : To find places

  • Direction to travel

  • Determine distance

  • Determine Size

  • Visually display data

Different types of maps

  • Types of Maps

  • Topographic map –

    • Shows elevation of the land

    • Shows 3 dimensional ups and downs on 2 dimensional surface

  • Population density –

    How many people live in

    an area (crowdedness).

    Road maps, School Maps,

    Weather Maps, Etc…

What is on a proper map?

  • What is on a Proper Map?

  • Title –

    • Tells what map you are looking at.

  • Key / Legend

    Shows representations of objects on the map.

  • Scale –

    • Shows distance on a map.

What is on a proper map?

  • Compass –

    • gives direction (N,S,E,W)

      WE not EW to get out of the woods.

  • Landmarks/features –

    • objects such as mountains, buildings, parking lots ect.

  • Roads with names –

    • roads are labeled to clarify which roads you are looking at

  • Latitude and longitude

    • For navigation

Latitude and Longitude

  • How do we tell which is which?

What is Latitude?

  • Latitude is the Measure of distance north and south of the equator. (Laddertude, Flatitude)

  • What is its range?

  • Latitude range = 0° – 90° N or S

  • What are lines of equal latitude?

  • Parallels are lines of the same latitude

    running East and West on a map

    Parallel to the Equator

    What is 0 Degrees Latitude?

  • Equator - 0° latitude

  • Halfway between North

    and South pole

Other notable Latitudes

North Pole: 90° N

Arctic Circle: 66.5° N

Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N

Equator: 0° Latitude

Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S

Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S

South Pole: 90° S

All #’s relate to 23.5

Earths Tilt


  • Longitude is the measure of

    distance east and west

    of the prime meridian

    Longitude Range?

  • Longitude Range 0° - 180° E or W

    Can only go half way around a circle

  • Lines of equal Longitude?

  • Meridian - Lines of equal Longitude.

    Run between North and South Pole

    Zero Degrees Longitude

  • Prime Meridian – 0° longitude

    Runs through Greenwich, England

  • What is the name for 180°

    The International Date Line is 180 Deg. Longitude

Why did we start using Lat / Long?

  • We started using Latitude / Longitude

    For ship navigation

Poor navigation = Bad Day

Our Latitude / Longitude

  • Latitude / Longitude for Lagrangeville, NY?

  • Lat / Long for Lagrangeville, NY

  • 41 Deg. North / 74 Deg. West

To Review

  • Latitude first, mustalways include N or S

  • Longitude second, must always include E or W

  • Start at equator and go N or S the number of degree

  • Start at the Prime meridian and go E or W the number of degrees

  • The intersection of the two lines is your location

Find these Coordinates

  • 40° N3° W

    • Madrid, Spain

  • 36° N112° W

    • Grand Canyon National Park

  • 0°N36° E

    • Nairobi, Kenya

  • 33° S70° E

    • Santiago, Chile

  • 28° N81° W

    • Disney World - Orlando, Florida

Time Zones

Why do we have Time Zones?

  • Time zones - Longitudinal belt in which all areas have the same local time

  • Why do we have time zones?

  • Since the Earth rotates, not all places are in daylight at the same time. To accommodate for this, different places are set to different times

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

  • Where is the starting point for time zones?

    The 0 point for time is 0° Longitude or the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

  • How far apart is each time zone?

  • Every time zone is 15 Deg. Apart.

  • 360° / 24 hours = 15° / hour

    What happens to time when we move to the West?

  • Every 15 deg. you move West we subtract 1 hr (Lazy Californians)

    What happens when we move to the East?

  • Every 15 degrees to the East we add 1 hour (Busy NYC)

International Date Line

  • Can we go back multiple days in time?

  • To stop us from going to far back or

    forward in time, the International Date

    line resets the day.

    What happens when we cross it?

  • Crossing to the west we add one day.

  • Crossing it to the east we subtract one day

  • It is the opposite of time zones!

    Why is the line not straight with the 180 deg meridian?

  • The line does not run perfectly North and South, it bends around islands in its path

Time Zones in the United States

  • US time zones:

  • Eastern Standard Time

  • Central Standard Time

  • Mountain Standard Time

  • Pacific Standard Time

  • Alaska and Hawaii

Mapping the Earth

  • What is the best representation of the Earth?

  • The best representation of the Earth is a Globe.

  • What happens when we try to make a map the Earth?

    When the round surface of the Earth is projected on a flat surface changes occur that distort the size and shape of land and oceans

Mercator Projection

  • Mercator Maps show correct shape of coastline

  • Distorts the size of land and water areas far from the equator

  • Greenland is made

    much larger then

    it really is.

Equal Area Projection

  • Equal Area Maps shows area correctly

    Distorts the shapes

How to write a lab – cover page (G)

How to write a lab– Purpose/Procedure (G)

How to write a lab – data (G)

How to write a lab – conclusion (G)

Map lab Conclusion (G)

1.) What is a map?

2.) What is the study of maps known as?

3.) Name and explain 3 kinds of maps people would use?

4.) What are 8 important features on a map (define)

5.) What changed from your first map to your final map?

(Meaning did you add or change anything.)

6.) Explain 2 types of maps that try to fix the problem of distortion.


H.I. Lab (G) / Secret Code Lab (R)

  • Conclusion:

  • Define Latitude ?

  • Define parallels ? (in terms of latitude)

  • What is the zero point for Latitude ?

  • Define Longitude ?

  • Define Meridian ? (in terms of Longitude)

  • What is the zero point for Longitude ?

  • What are time zones, Why do we have them and how many degrees are between them?

  • What is the International Date Line, where is it andwhy do we have it ?

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