# Cartography - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cartography. Map Making. What is the art of making maps called? Cartography – the art of making maps. What is a Map ?. A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size. Lagrange Middle School.

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Cartography

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## Map Making

What is the art of making maps called?

Cartography – the art of making maps

### What is a Map ?

• A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size.

### Uses of MapsWhat do we use Maps for?

• Maps are used for:

• Navigation : To find places

• Direction to travel

• Determine distance

• Determine Size

• Visually display data

### Different types of maps

• Types of Maps

• Topographic map –

• Shows elevation of the land

• Shows 3 dimensional ups and downs on 2 dimensional surface

• Population density –

How many people live in

an area (crowdedness).

Weather Maps, Etc…

### What is on a proper map?

• What is on a Proper Map?

• Title –

• Tells what map you are looking at.

• Key / Legend

Shows representations of objects on the map.

• Scale –

• Shows distance on a map.

### What is on a proper map?

• Compass –

• gives direction (N,S,E,W)

WE not EW to get out of the woods.

• Landmarks/features –

• objects such as mountains, buildings, parking lots ect.

• roads are labeled to clarify which roads you are looking at

• Latitude and longitude

### Latitude and Longitude

• How do we tell which is which?

### What is Latitude?

• Latitude is the Measure of distance north and south of the equator. (Laddertude, Flatitude)

• What is its range?

• Latitude range = 0° – 90° N or S

• What are lines of equal latitude?

• Parallels are lines of the same latitude

running East and West on a map

Parallel to the Equator

What is 0 Degrees Latitude?

• Equator - 0° latitude

• Halfway between North

and South pole

### Other notable Latitudes

North Pole: 90° N

Arctic Circle: 66.5° N

Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N

Equator: 0° Latitude

Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S

Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S

South Pole: 90° S

All #’s relate to 23.5

Earths Tilt

### Longitude

• Longitude is the measure of

distance east and west

of the prime meridian

Longitude Range?

• Longitude Range 0° - 180° E or W

Can only go half way around a circle

• Lines of equal Longitude?

• Meridian - Lines of equal Longitude.

Run between North and South Pole

Zero Degrees Longitude

• Prime Meridian – 0° longitude

Runs through Greenwich, England

• What is the name for 180°

The International Date Line is 180 Deg. Longitude

### Why did we start using Lat / Long?

• We started using Latitude / Longitude

### Our Latitude / Longitude

• Latitude / Longitude for Lagrangeville, NY?

• Lat / Long for Lagrangeville, NY

• 41 Deg. North / 74 Deg. West

### To Review

• Latitude first, mustalways include N or S

• Longitude second, must always include E or W

• Start at equator and go N or S the number of degree

• Start at the Prime meridian and go E or W the number of degrees

• The intersection of the two lines is your location

### Find these Coordinates

• 40° N3° W

• 36° N112° W

• Grand Canyon National Park

• 0°N36° E

• Nairobi, Kenya

• 33° S70° E

• Santiago, Chile

• 28° N81° W

• Disney World - Orlando, Florida

### Why do we have Time Zones?

• Time zones - Longitudinal belt in which all areas have the same local time

• Why do we have time zones?

• Since the Earth rotates, not all places are in daylight at the same time. To accommodate for this, different places are set to different times

### Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

• Where is the starting point for time zones?

The 0 point for time is 0° Longitude or the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

• How far apart is each time zone?

• Every time zone is 15 Deg. Apart.

• 360° / 24 hours = 15° / hour

What happens to time when we move to the West?

• Every 15 deg. you move West we subtract 1 hr (Lazy Californians)

What happens when we move to the East?

• Every 15 degrees to the East we add 1 hour (Busy NYC)

### International Date Line

• Can we go back multiple days in time?

• To stop us from going to far back or

forward in time, the International Date

line resets the day.

What happens when we cross it?

• Crossing to the west we add one day.

• Crossing it to the east we subtract one day

• It is the opposite of time zones!

Why is the line not straight with the 180 deg meridian?

• The line does not run perfectly North and South, it bends around islands in its path

### Time Zones in the United States

• US time zones:

• Eastern Standard Time

• Central Standard Time

• Mountain Standard Time

• Pacific Standard Time

### Mapping the Earth

• What is the best representation of the Earth?

• The best representation of the Earth is a Globe.

• What happens when we try to make a map the Earth?

When the round surface of the Earth is projected on a flat surface changes occur that distort the size and shape of land and oceans

### Mercator Projection

• Mercator Maps show correct shape of coastline

• Distorts the size of land and water areas far from the equator

much larger then

it really is.

### Equal Area Projection

• Equal Area Maps shows area correctly

Distorts the shapes

### Map lab Conclusion (G)

1.) What is a map?

2.) What is the study of maps known as?

3.) Name and explain 3 kinds of maps people would use?

4.) What are 8 important features on a map (define)

(Meaning did you add or change anything.)

6.) Explain 2 types of maps that try to fix the problem of distortion.

### H.I. Lab (G) / Secret Code Lab (R)

• Conclusion:

• Define Latitude ?

• Define parallels ? (in terms of latitude)

• What is the zero point for Latitude ?

• Define Longitude ?

• Define Meridian ? (in terms of Longitude)

• What is the zero point for Longitude ?

• What are time zones, Why do we have them and how many degrees are between them?

• What is the International Date Line, where is it andwhy do we have it ?