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a. FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750). Eng Rev-> triumph of?. a. FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750). Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96). New tech. dev. In Britain? . a.

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FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

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Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Eng Rev-> triumph of?


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New tech. dev. In Britain?


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Another important development?

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Its importance?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Transporting goods?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Left: The Barton Aqueduct, built in 1769, and the Chirk Aqueduct, painted in 1802 by John Sell Cotman.


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, built in 1805


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Canal mania spread to America in the early 1800s. While the best known was the Erie Canal, there was a system of canals stretching 280 miles across Pennsylvania using locks, dams, tow paths, and railroads (for towing boats). Charles Dickens wrote an account of traveling on this canal in 1842. He described the crossing of the Allegheny Portage Railroad: "Occasionally the rails are laid upon the extreme verge of the giddy precipice and looking down from the carriage window, the traveler gazes sheer down without a stone or scrap of fence between into the mountain depths below,” Overall, he described his trip across Pennsylvania as "sufficiently disconcerting.” Such a cumbersome journey was still better than carrying goods on foot. Railroads eventually made such canals obsolete.


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 1700s road conditions in Europe were abysmal. When it rained they could turn into a morass of mud. Otherwise they were full of potholes and ruts that were especially hazardous for passengers of stagecoaches with their high center of gravity, killing many of them in stagecoach flips.


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Then John McAdam (1756-1836), invented a new kind of roadbed with large stones on the bottom with layers of progressively smaller stones on top. The smallest stones could only be 1” in diameter, the idea being the wear and tear of traffic would pack them together, as opposed to larger stones that would crack. Typically they had no binding, but at sometimes tar would be used, thus giving rise to the term “tarmack”. Macadamized roads, as they would be called, drained well with drainage channels to the side. They were safe, and durable, vastly improving overland travel in Britain before the railroads.

A cross-section of a Macadamized Road


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Typically, the tedious work of stone breaking for Macadamized roads was done by convicts, as portrayed in Gustave Courbet’s The Stonebreakers.


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Toll road stations. Since roadways were typically owned by private individuals or corporations, travelers had to pay tolls for their use.


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Two types of things colonies provided Britain?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

Eli Whitney, his cotton gin, and an ad showing another of his innovations, manufacturing guns with interchangeable parts


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng?


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Br’s geogr. advantages?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Br’s natural resources?

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)

Drastic changes in soc. & family structure (FC.113)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

a

FC.111 THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN (c.1750)

Population growth  Labor force & mkts for goods

Resources for textile mills & markets for goods

Develop transp. system: ships & canals

Large deposits of coal & iron in N. England

Br’s excellent waterways & trade position

Triumph of rich middle class willing & able to invest in new business & tech. (FC.96)

Britain’s colonial empire (FC.96C)

New agricultural tech’s (FC.109)

New steam & textile tech. (FC.110))

Bank of Eng Money to invest (FC.96C)

Ind. Rev. starts in Britain, putting it well ahead of the rest of the world

Steamships & RRs Tie continents & globe more tightly together (FC.112)

Virtual explosion of new tech’s, esp. after creation of research labs (FC.117)

Gradual improvement in women’s status (FC.114)

Drastic changes in soc. & family structure (FC.113)

Powerful forces & effects of Ind. Rev. spread across globe (FC.116)


Fc 111 the birth of the industrial revolution in britain c 1750

FC.117B AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Need to help poor where church & family used to

More $ in economy

Higher standard of living

Profusion of new tech’s

Incentive to create new prod’s Research labs

Higher stand. of living after initial decline

Drastic changes in people’s lives:

Impers. urban soc + sep. of home & work Nucl. fam.

More sales

Raise production

More Jobs

Awful work cond’s Reforms

Need to protect people from rich & powerful

Various psychological effects:

Women win the vote

More educ. women

Rising status as seen in:

Need to regulate growing interdep. within & b/w nations

Power & expense of mod. weapons only it can afford

Global economic & political interdependence

RR’s, steamships & telegraph

Dev. cont. interiors & link mkts, fact’s & resources

Growing power of the indus. state due to:

Govt’s fund RRs, & est. stand. gauges & safety rules

Ind Rev starts in Britain (FC.111)

Railroads (FC.112)

Accelerating pace of tech. change (FC.117)

Impact on women (FC.114)

Social effects (FC.113)

More soc. mobility & freer fashions

More women in workforce More money and influence

World seems smaller & more impersonal

Longer livesLess religious & more materialistic

Marxism as reaction vs. industrial conditions (FC.115)

Outsourcing cycle ind. Rev. spreads across globe (FC.116)


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