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The Birth of the Industrial Revolution . 5.1 | The Smoke has Settled, so Let’s Make More . Britain c.1750 . Majority of people live agriculturally Local lifestyle; limited movement By 1850 – Industry expands – cities expand – communications expand – Trans-Atlantic Telegraph (10 days).

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The birth of the industrial revolution

The Birth of the Industrial Revolution

5.1 | The Smoke has Settled, so Let’s Make More


Britain c 1750
Britain c.1750

  • Majority of people live agriculturally

    • Local lifestyle; limited movement

  • By 1850 – Industry expands – cities expand – communications expand – Trans-Atlantic Telegraph (10 days)


Agriculture expands
Agriculture Expands

  • Neolithic Revolution to 1700 AD

  • Education

    • Soil exhaustion

    • Mechanical seeder

    • Tulips in the Netherlands

  • Land enclosure

    • Efficiency outweighs equality


The black forest

The Black Forest

And I mean Europe

Yes, it was once a HUGE forest, hence the name

So what happened?


Coal

  • New, efficient, and everywhere

  • Powered steam engines that would power the industrial revolution

  • More coal = more production = more power

    • Soon, Everything was run by steam machines using coal


Visitors to these cities
Visitors to these Cities

Described them as…

“cloud of coal vapor”

Pounding noise of steam engines

Filthy stench of river


Social stratification
Social Stratification

  • What we were working with

    • Wealthy (nobility)

    • Somewhat wealthy (merchants, bankers, and such)

    • Not wealthy (farmers and c.85%)

  • Industrial Revolution = entrepreneurs from private enterprise = new social class

    • Bourgeoisie = collection of the somewhat wealthy and the emerging wealthy

    • “Rags to Riches”

    • Eager to “get ahead”


Capitalism takes root
Capitalism Takes Root

  • Private enterprise invests in technology (capital) to out produce

  • Quality vs. Quantity

  • Mercantile system as “dumping grounds”

  • The Wealth of Nations


Society begins to divide
Society begins to divide

  • Those not with the wealthy or bourgeoisie were left behind

  • Industrial working class

    • Lived outside the pleasant emerging neighborhoods

    • Stuck in the stanky slums

    • Contained in dirty, polluted tenements

      • No running water

      • No sewage

      • No waste system – rotting garbage everywhere

      • Runoff into rivers – contaminated water and stunk


Life in the factories
Life in the factories

  • The good ole times (agricultural)

    • Worked hard but …

      • Safer, cleaner, at your own pace, and seasonal

  • Industrial society

    • 12 to 16 hour shifts; 6 or 7 days a week

    • No regular breaks, no safety equipment – limb loss was common

    • Hazardous dust everywhere – Mines

    • Labor protests – Unions


Women can work
Women can work?

I suppose, but let’s pay them half as much, make them work as much, and then make them go home and care for their entire families


The cotton industry

The Cotton Industry

Britain’s Industrialization

Capitalism = Competition = Innovation = Wealth = Cost of goods = Wages = Strong economy


The ball begins to roll
The Ball Begins to Roll

  • Production soars = wealth grows = population grows = demand grows

  • Factories born

  • Speed of movement required grows

  • Transportation grows

  • Canals, locomotives, steam powered engines


Urbanization
Urbanization

  • Cities grow as centers of productivity

  • Land enclosure = increased productivity and increased labor pool

    • Factories hire cheap labor

    • Manchester, GB pop

      • 1750 – 17,000

      • 1801 – 70,000


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