1750 1914
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1750-1914. The Industrial Revolution. What was the Industrial Revolution?. g reat acceleration in rate of technological innovation, leading to an enormously increased output of goods & services n ew sources of energy a culture of innovation

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The Industrial Revolution

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1750 1914

1750-1914

The Industrial Revolution


What was the industrial revolution

What was the Industrial Revolution?

  • great acceleration in rate of technological innovation, leading to an enormously increased output of goods & services

  • new sources of energy

  • a culture of innovation

    • widespread & almost obsessive belief that things could be endlessly improved

  • put W.Europe into position of global dominance

  • only nations that industrialized had chance to compete w/ W.Europe

  • spread unevenly & is a continuing process

    • “developed”, “developing”, “undeveloped” nations


Why did the industrial revolution begin in western europe

Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Western Europe?

  • preceded by Scientific Revolution

  • numerous small, competitive states

  • governments supported merchant class

    • govts needed revenue they provided

    • encourage innovation & commerce

  • global contact w/culturally different people

    • bring back foreign goods as stimulus

      • ex. Indian cotton cloth, Chinese porcelain

    • can draw on world’s natural resources


Why did it begin in britain

Why did it begin in Britain?

  • unplanned & unexpected, c1750

  • factors of production were ideal

    • large labor force (unemployed farmers)

      • farmlands “enclosed” & agricultural innovations

    • infrastructure: road & canal networks

    • geographic luck

      • coal & iron ore, protection from conquest  stability

    • global empire provided natural resources

  • government pro-capitalist

    • limited monarchy


Industrialization spreads from britain in early 1800s

Industrialization spreads from Britain in early 1800s

Britain

Germany, France, Belgium

USA


Industrial society

Industrial Society

  • constant innovation

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

JAMES WATT’S STEAM ENGINE

THE

POWER LOOM

THE STEAMBOAT


Rapid economic growth

Rapid Economic Growth

British Pig Iron Production: 1750-1870

  • British Cotton Textile Production:

    • 1800: 52,000,000 lbs. cotton used

    • 1850: 588,000,000 lbs cotton used

Coal Mining Output & Laborers in Britain: 1800-1914


Rise of the railroad 1840 1900

Rise of the Railroad: 1840-1900

Length of Railroad Lines Open

(in kilometers)


Changing social classes

Changing Social Classes

  • The Aristocracy

    • owned most farmland & dominated politics

    • rivaled by industrialized businessmen

    • many became settlers or administrators in overseas colonies

  • The Middle Class

    • Self-made factory & mine owners, bankers, merchants

    • live aristocratic life

    • central value = respectability


Changing social classes1

Changing Social Classes

  • The Laboring Class

    • manual workers

    • impacted most by new urbanization

      • majority of British population in cities

      • overcrowded, unsanitary, periodic epidemics, tenement housing, inadequate water supply, few public services

  • factory system:

    • workers produce manufactured goods in one place using machines for regular wage

    • long hours, low wages, monotonous labor, dangerous

    • children & young women oftentimes used


Industrial staffordshire england

Industrial Staffordshire, England


The silent highwayman 1858

The Silent Highwayman, 1858


Stereotype of the factory owner

Stereotype of the Factory Owner


Challenging the new social order

Challenging the New Social Order

  • Luddites

  • movement for working man’s vote

  • women’s rights & suffrage movement

  • trade unions develop

  • socialist & utopian ideals form & spread

    • challenge capitalist society & social problems it developed

    • “Marxism”


Communism rethinking industrial society

Communism: Rethinking Industrial Society

  • Communism (“Marxism”)

    • Karl Marx

    • The Communist Manifesto, 1848

      • history is the story of class struggle

        • oppressor vs. oppressed

        • bourgeoisie vs. proletariat

      • Marx’s observations:

        • under capitalism, the industrial workers are exploited by their bosses

      • Goal of communism?

        • Abolish capitalism & class system!

      • How?

        • Revolution of workers & redistribute wealth evenly

        • No private property; all is shared in the workers’ paradise!


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