1750 1914
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1750-1914. The Industrial Revolution. What was the Industrial Revolution?. g reat acceleration in rate of technological innovation, leading to an enormously increased output of goods & services n ew sources of energy a culture of innovation

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The Industrial Revolution

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1750-1914

The Industrial Revolution


What was the Industrial Revolution?

  • great acceleration in rate of technological innovation, leading to an enormously increased output of goods & services

  • new sources of energy

  • a culture of innovation

    • widespread & almost obsessive belief that things could be endlessly improved

  • put W.Europe into position of global dominance

  • only nations that industrialized had chance to compete w/ W.Europe

  • spread unevenly & is a continuing process

    • “developed”, “developing”, “undeveloped” nations


Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Western Europe?

  • preceded by Scientific Revolution

  • numerous small, competitive states

  • governments supported merchant class

    • govts needed revenue they provided

    • encourage innovation & commerce

  • global contact w/culturally different people

    • bring back foreign goods as stimulus

      • ex. Indian cotton cloth, Chinese porcelain

    • can draw on world’s natural resources


Why did it begin in Britain?

  • unplanned & unexpected, c1750

  • factors of production were ideal

    • large labor force (unemployed farmers)

      • farmlands “enclosed” & agricultural innovations

    • infrastructure: road & canal networks

    • geographic luck

      • coal & iron ore, protection from conquest  stability

    • global empire provided natural resources

  • government pro-capitalist

    • limited monarchy


Industrialization spreads from Britain in early 1800s

Britain

Germany, France, Belgium

USA


Industrial Society

  • constant innovation

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

JAMES WATT’S STEAM ENGINE

THE

POWER LOOM

THE STEAMBOAT


Rapid Economic Growth

British Pig Iron Production: 1750-1870

  • British Cotton Textile Production:

    • 1800: 52,000,000 lbs. cotton used

    • 1850: 588,000,000 lbs cotton used

Coal Mining Output & Laborers in Britain: 1800-1914


Rise of the Railroad: 1840-1900

Length of Railroad Lines Open

(in kilometers)


Changing Social Classes

  • The Aristocracy

    • owned most farmland & dominated politics

    • rivaled by industrialized businessmen

    • many became settlers or administrators in overseas colonies

  • The Middle Class

    • Self-made factory & mine owners, bankers, merchants

    • live aristocratic life

    • central value = respectability


Changing Social Classes

  • The Laboring Class

    • manual workers

    • impacted most by new urbanization

      • majority of British population in cities

      • overcrowded, unsanitary, periodic epidemics, tenement housing, inadequate water supply, few public services

  • factory system:

    • workers produce manufactured goods in one place using machines for regular wage

    • long hours, low wages, monotonous labor, dangerous

    • children & young women oftentimes used


Industrial Staffordshire, England


The Silent Highwayman, 1858


Stereotype of the Factory Owner


Challenging the New Social Order

  • Luddites

  • movement for working man’s vote

  • women’s rights & suffrage movement

  • trade unions develop

  • socialist & utopian ideals form & spread

    • challenge capitalist society & social problems it developed

    • “Marxism”


Communism: Rethinking Industrial Society

  • Communism (“Marxism”)

    • Karl Marx

    • The Communist Manifesto, 1848

      • history is the story of class struggle

        • oppressor vs. oppressed

        • bourgeoisie vs. proletariat

      • Marx’s observations:

        • under capitalism, the industrial workers are exploited by their bosses

      • Goal of communism?

        • Abolish capitalism & class system!

      • How?

        • Revolution of workers & redistribute wealth evenly

        • No private property; all is shared in the workers’ paradise!


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