The cardiovascular system chapter 8
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The Cardiovascular System CHAPTER 8. Pump it Up!!!. The heart is a pump that moves blood through the body. This movement allows oxygen, nutrients, hormones, antibodies , and inflammatory cells to be delivered to where they are needed in the body.

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The Cardiovascular System CHAPTER 8

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The cardiovascular system chapter 8

The Cardiovascular SystemCHAPTER 8


Pump it up

Pump it Up!!!

  • The heart is a pump that moves blood through the body. This movement allows oxygen, nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and inflammatory cells to be delivered to where they are needed in the body.

  • Also removes__________ products from tissues.

  • All of these materials are propelled by the heart through a closed system of tubes to the tissues of the body.


Where is the heart located

Where is the heart located?

  • Centrallyin the chest

    • Surrounded by lungs, protected by ribs

    • Between 3rd-7thribs in ________ animals and 2nd-6thribs in _________ animals

    • Lies in the _____________/interpleural space, which is the space between the pleural covering of the right and left lungs.

      • Trachea, esophagus, and other vascular structures are also contained in the mediastinum.


Orientation of the heart

Orientation of the heart

  • Shifted to the left of the chest

  • ________ - the bottom of the heart where the left ventricle comes to a point

  • ________ - the top of the heart where major blood vessels enter and exit


Composition of the heart wall

Composition of the Heart Wall

Outer layer of the heart is called the_________________.

The pericardium consists of an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner serous pericardium.

  • ______________ pericardium

    • Made of tough, fibrous connective tissue that protects the heart and loosely attaches to the diaphragm.


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

  • The ____________ pericardium consists of two layers:

    • *The __________ pericardial layer is adjacent to the fibrous pericardium.

    • *The __________ pericardial layer (epicardium) is adhered to the myocardium.


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

Between the two layers of the serous pericardium is the pericardial space.

This is a fluid filled cavity that ________________ the two layers which allows the heart to smoothly expand and contract.


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

  • Beneath the epicardium is the ______cardium, the thickest layer of the heart tissue.

  • Between the myocardium and the heart chambers is a thin membranous lining called the ______cardium.


External anatomy of the heart chambers

External anatomy of the heart: Chambers

  • Auricles- (left and right) largest and most visible parts of the ________. They are identified by knowing which ventricle they lie above.

  • ________ ventricle - long and narrow, thick-walled, terminates at apex of heart

  • ________ ventricle - broader surface area, wraps around left ventricle

  • The borders of the ventricles are separated by interventricular sulci, which are grooves that contain fat and blood vessels that are part of ____________ circulation of heart.


External anatomy of the heart vessels carrying deoxygenated blood

External anatomy of the heart: Vessels carrying DEOXYGENATED blood

  • The _______ _________ (cranial and caudal) empty deoxygenated blood into the right atrium

  • The Pulmonary _________ emerges from the right ventricle as the pulmonary trunk

    • Quickly divides into right and left pulmonary arteries traveling to each lung


External anatomy of the heart vessels carrying oxygenated blood

External anatomy of the heart: Vessels carrying OXYGENATED blood

  • The Pulmonary _________ (left and right) return oxygenated blood to the left atrium

  • The _________ is the largest artery in the body

    • The walls of the aorta are the thickest of any blood vessel

    • The aorta emerges from the left ventricle into the aortic arch


Internal structures of the heart

Internal Structures of the Heart

Atrioventricular Valves:

-Right Atrioventricular Valve (aka Right AV valve/Tricuspid Valve)

-has ___ flaps/leaflets

-Left Atrioventricular Valve (aka Left AV Valve/Mitral Valve/Bicuspid Valve)

-has ___ flaps/leaflets

The AV valves are attached to _________ __________, which prevent the flaps from bending back into the atria. Chordae tendinae connect the free edges of the valvular flaps to the papillary muscles. _____________ muscles attach to the interventricular septum


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

The _____________ band is a band of tissue present in the right ventricle.

-originates at interventricular septum

-not attached to flaps of tricuspid valve

-provides additional structural support to the wall of the right ventricle


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

Semilunar valves:

-Aortic valve

-Pulmonary/pulmonic valve

Both valves are made of ____ leaflets. The aortic valve leads to the aorta and the pulmonary valve leads to the pulmonary artery.


The cardiovascular system chapter 8

Closure of the AV valves prevent blood from flowing backward into the atria. Closure of the semilunar valves prevent blood from flowing backward into the.The flaps of all 4 valves originate from a fibrous ring of tissue called the ___________.


Can you label the chambers and valves

Can you label the chambers and valves?


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