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Perception. We have previously examined the sensory processes by which stimuli are encoded. Now we will examine the ultimate purpose of sensory information PERCEPTION - the conscious representation of the external environment. Perceptual Organization.

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Perception
Perception

  • We have previously examined the sensory processes by which stimuli are encoded.

  • Now we will examine the ultimate purpose of sensory information

  • PERCEPTION - the conscious representation of the external environment.


Perceptual organization
Perceptual Organization

  • Some of the best examples that perception involves organization of sensory input was provided by the Gestalt Psychologists.

  • Gestalt psychologists hypothesized that “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.”

  • They were interested in showing the global nature of our perceptions


Gestalt grouping principles
Gestalt Grouping Principles

  • Gestalt theorists argued that our perceptual systems automatically organized sensory input based on certain rules.

  • Proximity

  • Similarity

  • Closure

  • Good Continuation

  • Common Movement

  • Good Form


Figure and ground
Figure and Ground

  • Gestalt Psychologists also thought that an important part of our perception was the organization of a scene in to its:

  • Figure - the object of interest

  • Ground - the background


Depth perception
Depth Perception

  • One of our more important perceptual abilities involves seeing in three-dimensions

  • Depth perception is difficult because we only have access to two-dimensional images

  • How do we see a 3-D world using only the 2-D retinal images?


Depth perception cues
Depth Perception Cues

  • Cue - stimulus characteristics that influence our perceptions

  • We are able to see in 3-D because the visual system can utilize depth cues that appear in the retinal images.


Types of depth cues
Types of Depth Cues

  • Depth cues are usually divided into categories, we will consider two types of depth cues:

  • Monocular- depth cues that appear in the image in either the left or right eye

  • Binocular - depth cues that involve comparing the left and right eye images


Monocular depth cues
Monocular Depth Cues

  • Occlusion

  • Relative image size

  • linear perspective

  • Texture gradient

  • Position relative to Horizon

  • Differential lighting of surfaces (Shading)


Relationship between perceived size and perceived depth

Retina

Pupil

B

A

Image

A

Image

Relationship Between Perceived size and Perceived Depth

  • To perceive the size of objects accurately we must also perceive their distance accurately.

  • Thus, many visual illusions occur simply because a particular image lacks sufficient depth cues.

This figure shows that image size depends upon both object size and distance


Ames room
Ames Room

  • The Ames room is designed so that the monocular depth cues give the illusion that the two people are equally far away


Other size distance illusions

(a) Müller-Lyer illusion

(b) Ponzo illusion

Other Size-Distance Illusions

  • In each of these examples, the top and bottom lines are actually the same length.

  • In each case the top line looks longer.

  • Why?


Muller lyer illusion
Muller-Lyer Illusion

  • Perceptual psychologists have hypothesized that the top horizontal line looks longer because it also looks farther away.

  • Specifically, the inward pointing arrows signify that the horizontal line is closest to you, and the outward pointing arrows signify the opposite case.


Ponzo illusion
Ponzo Illusion

  • Converging lines indicate that top line is farther away than bottom line


Binocular depth cues
Binocular Depth Cues

  • Monocular depth cues allow us to see in 3-D with the view of only one eye, but our best depth perception occurs if we look through both eyes.

  • This is because our right and left eyes see a slightly different view of the world.

  • This difference between the image in the two eyes is know as Binocular Disparity.


Binocular stereopsis
Binocular Stereopsis

  • Binocular Stereopsis - the perception of depth based on retinal disparity

  • Psychologists typically study binocular stereopsis with the use of stereograms.

  • Stereogram - stimulus consisting of a left eye and a right eye image. When these two images are fused, the Illusion of depth is created.



Autostereogream
Autostereogream

  • Another way to create the illusion of depth through binocular stereopsis is with an Autostereogram.

  • An autostereogram is formed by superimposing two repeating patterns

  • The two patterns are slightly offset, and when viewed properly, this offset is seen as a binocular disparity.



Perceptual constancy
Perceptual Constancy

  • When viewing conditions change, the retinal image changes even if the objects being viewed remain constant.

  • Example: as a person walks away from you their retinal image decreases in size.

  • important function of the perceptual system is to represent constancy in our environment even when the retinal image varies.


Size constancy

Point B

Point A

Size Constancy

  • Cylinders at positions A and B are the same size even though their image sizes differ

  • The depth cues such as linear perspective and texture help the visual system judge the size accurately


Shape constancy
Shape Constancy

  • It is hard to tell if the figure on the upper right is a trapezoid or a square slanted backward.

  • If we add texture, the texture gradient helps us see that it is actually a square.


Attention combining the elements of perception
Attention: Combining the Elements of Perception

  • We can not be consciously aware of all the perceptual information available to us at any one time.

  • Thus, we have the ability to enhance some aspects of our perception while ignoring others.

  • This selective process is know as attention.


Preattentive processing
Preattentive processing

  • Some aspects of our perception are under our conscious attentive control.

  • Example: In a large crowd, we can concentrate on listening to some people and ignoring others.

  • However, other perceptual processes occur automatically and we can not consciously control them.


Feature integration
Feature Integration

  • Feature detection is an example of a preattentive perceptual process, and can be done in parallel

  • Feature Integration, seems to require attention and most be performed serially.


Feature integration1

Stage 1

Feature-

detection

files

Stage 2

Stimuli

Line slant

X

X

Feature

integration

Conscious

perception

of stimulus

(a red X)

V

V

Color

Etc.

Feature Integration


Feature pop out

(b)

(a)

Feature Pop Out

  • The slanted line amongst vertical lines Pops Out, but the cross amongst horizontal and vertical lines does not pop out.


The stroop effect learned automaticity
The Stroop Effect: Learned Automaticity

  • Some abilities which once required attention can become automatic through practice.

  • An example of such learned automaticity is found in the Stroop Intereference Effect.

  • Stroop found that the act of reading could interfere with your ability to perform simple perceptual distinctions like naming colors.


Stroop effect

GREEN

RED

TRUCK

RED

BLUE

TOP

BLUE

GREEN

COUCH

BLACK

BLACK

HAND

BLUE

GREEN

COUCH

RED

TOP

BLUE

GREEN

BLACK

TRUCK

BLACK

RED

TOP

RED

BLUE

COUCH

BLUE

GREEN

HAND

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

Stroop Effect

  • In Stroop’s experiment, observers were asked to look at a word and name the color of the ink used to write that word.

  • Stroop found that if the meaning of the word was different than the color of the ink, observers were less successful at naming colors.


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