Perception
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Perception: . Organization and Interpretation. Perception is…. Our way of selecting, organizing, and interpreting our sensations. Perception blends with Sensation into one continuous process to help us represent the world in our heads. Perceptual Organization. Gestalt

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Perception

Perception:

Organization and Interpretation


Perception is
Perception is…

  • Our way of selecting, organizing, and interpreting our sensations.

  • Perception blends with Sensation into one continuous process to help us represent the world in our heads.


Perceptual organization
Perceptual Organization

  • Gestalt

    • We organize our sensations into a whole rather than see it parts.

    • Necker Cube

    • Types of Perceptions: form, depth, motion, constancy.


Seeing things as wholes
Seeing things as wholes

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the ltteers in a wrod are, olny taht the frist

and lsat ltteres are at the rghit pcleas. The

rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll

raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae

we do not raed ervey lteter by ilstef, but

the wrod as a wlohe.


Necker cube
Necker Cube

A simple 3D figure, but a complex arrangement of lines in 2D. The 3D interpretation prevails in perceptual organization.


Form

  • Figure and ground

  • Grouping


Form figure and ground
Form: Figure and Ground

  • Reversible, always organize the stimulus into a figure seen against a ground.

  • Figure - the object of interest

  • Ground - the background


Form grouping
Form: Grouping

  • The perceived whole is different from it parts.

  • Helps us to construct a reality.

  • Factors that come into play when grouping:

    • Closeness (_____________________)

    • Sameness (_____________________)

    • Ongoing (_______________________)

    • Linked (_________________________)

    • Complete (______________________)


Perceptual organization form grouping principles
Perceptual Organization: Form: Grouping Principles


Depth perception
Depth Perception

  • Two dimensional images are projected onto the retina.

  • DP is our ability to see things is three dimensions using depth cues:

    • Binocular cues

    • Monocular cues


Depth perception binocular clues
Depth Perception:Binocular Clues

  • Eyes are ~2 1/2 inches apart.

    • Our eyes get different images of the world.

      • The larger the angle, the nearer the object.

      • See next slide

    • Convergence

    • Retinal Disparity


Depth perception monocular cues
Depth Perception:Monocular Cues

  • We rely on these to gauge depth and distance.

    • Relative size

    • Interposition

    • Relative Clarity

    • Texture Gradient

    • Relative height

    • Relative motion

    • Linear perspective

    • Lights and shadows

  • Find an example of one of these now…..

    • Page 235 in textbook


Motion
Motion

  • Stroboscopic motion

  • Phi phenomenon

  • Motion after effect


Perceptual constancy
Perceptual Constancy

  • Enables us to perceive an object as unchanging regardless of changes in the stimulus we receive.

  • Impt examples: Muller-Lyer; Ponzo


Muller lyer illusion
Muller-Lyer Illusion

  • The top horizontal line looks longer because it also looks farther away.

  • The inward pointing arrows signify that the horizontal line is closest to you, and the outward pointing arrows signify the opposite case.


Ponzo illusion
Ponzo Illusion

  • Converging lines indicate that top line is farther away than bottom line


What effects our perceptions
What effects our perceptions?

  • Deprivation

  • Adaptation

  • Set

    • Context

    • 10-11 exercise

    • Sine wave Speech



Fraser spiral
Fraser Spiral

  • http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/ang_fraser/index.html


Deprivation
Deprivation

  • Critical period- that optimal time period after birth when certain events must take place for normal development.

  • Use it “soon” or lose it.

  • Cat example


Adaptation
Adaptation

  • We can become “biperceptual”

    • Bilinguals- can switch back to native/new language at will.

  • Adaptation is difficult at first, but can happen with no apparent recourse for previous perceptions.


Perceptual set
Perceptual Set

  • A mental predisposition that influences what we perceive.

    • Influences include schemas, past experiences, stereotypes.

    • Context

      • Top-down influences our bottom-up.


Perceptual set1
Perceptual Set

  • Call out the number that follows each of these….

  • Pronounce the words that I am about to spell

  • Provide punctuation to make these words meaningful.

  • The telephone game.

  • Just for fun


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