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advertising. B341. The Nature and Types of Advertising. Advertising Paid nonpersonal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media

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The Nature and Types of Advertising

  • Advertising

    • Paid nonpersonal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media

    • Promotes goods, services, ideas, images, issues, people, and anything else that advertisers want to publicize or foster


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General Steps in Developing andImplementing an Advertising Campaign

FIGURE 18.1


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Advertising Pyramid

Action

Desire

Conviction

Comprehension

Awareness

Slide 48



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Institutional Ads

  • Ads that promote a companies overall philosophy, or portray a positive image for the firm without really attempting to focus on any specific product or service.

    • Church Family commercials


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Comparative Ads

  • Are legal in the U.S., but proper substantiation required for any claims made.

  • Some countries prohibit comparative ads.


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Copy Platform

  • Given to the ad agency creative team

  • Provides:

    • Objective Statement (what are we trying to accomplish and with which target?)

    • Positioning Statement

    • Supporting evidence (back up the positioning)

    • Tone Statement – personality of the campaign (emotional? humorous? rationale? informational?)


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A Big Idea

More info

  • Conveys the positioning

  • Appeals to the target

  • Delivers on the objective

  • Breaks through (gets attention)

  • Is memorable

  • Has legs

    • Can be used in multiple mediums

    • Can be executed in several different versions of the same idea.


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Big Idea

  • Should be 3 or 4 sentence

  • Should explain the content of the promotions so I would have an idea what individual ads would look like

  • If there is a “clever twist” it should be explained

  • Can include a slogan or tag line


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Create awareness

Stimulate demand

Encourage product trial

Identify prospects

Retain loyal customers

Facilitate reseller support

Combat competitive promotional efforts

Reduce sale fluctuations

Objectives


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Reach and Frequency

  • Reach: % of target audience reached at least once by your media plan

  • Frequency: average # of times a target audience member sees the ad in a four-week period.


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Reach vs. Frequency

  • Often, you can’t afford to hit both real heavy.

  • Maximize reach if you have a cutting edge, breakthrough campaign, or are simply trying to maintain loyalty.

    • set a minimum frequency (3x for established brand, 5x for new brand) and then maximize reach

  • Maximize frequency if you have an action objective, a complex message, or heavy competitive advertising levels.

    • Set a minimum reach – say 50%, and then maximize frequency


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Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65

  • Focus on two months of seasonal increase in bread usage Sept/Oct 1993

  • Nationally , bought combination of daytime and early morning

    • Reach 69%, Frequency 9.8x per month

  • Locally in key markets, added early news and prime access

    • Reach 80%, Frequency 4.0x per month


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Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65

  • Today Show 4.4 rating points

  • Good Morning America 4.8 rating points

  • CBS This Morning 3.7 rating points

  • Price is Right 1 7.3 rating points

  • Price is Right 2 9.3 rating points

  • Young and Restless 11.1 rating points

  • As the World Turns 7.2 rating points

  • Bold and Beautiful 7.9 rating points


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Determining the Advertising Appropriation


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Developing the Media Plan

    • Specifies media vehicles (e.g., magazines, radio, and television stations, and newspapers) and the schedule for running the advertisements

    • Plan objectives focus on achieving the reach and frequency that the budget will allow.

      • Reach: the percentage of consumers in a target market exposed to an advertisement in a specified period

      • Frequency: the number of times targeted consumers are exposed to an advertisement in a specified period

Example


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Developing the Media Plan (cont’d)

    • Cost comparison indicator

      • A means of comparing the cost of vehicles in a specific medium in relation to the number of people reached

      • The indicator is stated as the cost for exposing one thousand people (CPM) to an advertisement in a medium.

    • Media scheduling types

      • Continuous

      • Flighting

      • Pulsing


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Media Alternatives

  • Newspapers

    • Good for mass coverage of a local market

    • Often not good for highly targeted audiences

    • Purchased in standard ad units (# columns x inches)

  • Television

    • mass or targeted coverage (thanks to cable)

    • sight, sound and motion makes it best for shaping attitudes

    • very expensive in most markets; also high production costs

    • Prime time best for mass audiences; may be wasteful for targeted audiences. Daytime, early fringe late fringe or local news may be best


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Television DaypartsMountain Time Zone

  • Early Morning – local and network, before 8 am

  • Daytime – 8 to 3pm - network

  • Early Fringe – local, before local news

  • Early News – local and network

  • Prime access – local, hour before prime

  • Prime Time – 7 to 10 pm network

  • Late News – local

  • Late fringe – network, after local news


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Media Alternatives

  • Direct Mail

    • targeted, geo-demographic coverage

    • high costs, unreliable mailing lists

  • Radio

    • psychographic targeting via station formats

    • fast, cheap production

    • highly fragmented audience


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Radio Daypartsmay vary by station

  • Morning Drive 6 to 10

  • Daytime 10 to 3

  • Afternoon drive 3 to 7

  • Nighttime 7 to midnight

  • All night midnight to 6


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Media Alternatives

  • Magazines

    • product-related and psychographic targeting

    • quality image

    • long lead time, poor frequency

  • Outdoor

    • mass coverage, great frequency

    • simple, short message

  • Interactive

    • two-way communication! But many technical problems still exist.


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Product Features, Uses,

and Benefits

Characteristics of the

Form and

Target Audience

Content of

Advertising

Advertising Campaign

Message

Objectives and Platform

Choice of Media

Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Creating the Advertising Message


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d)

    • Copy: the verbal portion of advertisements

      • Includes headlines, subheadlines, body copy, and signature

    • Copy guidelines

      • Identify a specific desire or problem

      • Recommend the product as the best way to satisfy the desire or solve the problem

      • State product benefits

      • Substantiate advertising claims

      • Ask the buyer to take action

Southwest


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Creating the Advertising Message Storyboard

    • A mockup combining copy and visual material to show the sequence of major scenes in a commercial

Plugged“Hum”

Leap“Yeah”

Upset“Oops”

Unplugged“Buzz”


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Developing an Advertising Campaign

  • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d)

    • Artwork

      • An ad’s illustration and layout

    • Illustrations

      • Photos, drawings, graphs, charts, and tables used to spark audience interest

    • Layout

      • The physical arrangement of an ad’s illustration and copy


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Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d)

  • Executing the Campaign

    • Planning and coordination

    • Implementation

      • Detailed scheduling of campaign phases

      • Evaluation and corrective action as necessary to make the campaign more effective


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5. Action

4. Desire

3. Credibility

2. Interest

1. Attention

Creative (copywriter’s)Pyramid

More info

Slide 68


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Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d)

  • Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness


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Public Relations

  • Public Relations

    • Communications efforts used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and its stakeholders

    • Focuses on enhancing the image of the total organization

  • Public Relations Tools

    • Written materials

      • Brochures • Newsletters • Company magazines

      • News releases • Annual reports

      • Corporate identity materials • Speeches

      • Sponsored events


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Public Relations (cont’d)

  • Publicity: a news story type of communication transmitted through a mass medium at no charge

    • News release MicrosoftCapsoftWalmart

      • A short piece of copy publicizing an event or a product

    • Feature article

      • A manuscript of up to 3,000 words prepared for a specific publication

    • Captioned photograph LDS Church

      • A photo with a brief description of its contents

    • Press conference

      • A meeting used to announce major news events


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