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MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group. John J. Lesko Kenneth L. Reifsnider Stephan P. Phifer Charles E. Bakis Anthony Nanni Clem Heil ASME 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 2000. Fatigue Issue Not Covered in This Talk. ?.

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Mda cerf durability study fatigue task group

MDA/CERF: Durability StudyFatigue Task Group

John J. Lesko

Kenneth L. Reifsnider

Stephan P. Phifer

Charles E. Bakis

Anthony Nanni

Clem Heil

ASME 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 2000



Fatigue failure mechanisms
Fatigue Failure Mechanisms

Fatigue-Life Diagram proposed by Talreja


Fatigue overview

Failure Mechanisms

Fiber

Matrix

Residual Cure Stress

Interface - Sizing

Laminate

Processing

Fatigue - Overview

  • Material & Processing Effects

  • Environmental & Testing Effects

  • Frequency/Creep

  • Hygrothermal

  • Temperature

  • Acid/Base/Electrolyte

  • Interactive Effects


Material effects
Material Effects

  • Fatigue Failure Mechanisms

  • Fiber

    • E-glass, carbon/graphite, Kevlar

  • Matrix

    • Brittle, toughened

  • Interface

    • Compatible and non-compatible sizings

  • Laminate

    • Woven, stitched, and unidirectional

    • Stacking sequence - 0°, ±45 °, 90° plies

  • Processing Type


Fibers 0 90 s
FIBERS - (0/90°)s

  • Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.


Fibers tensile stress fatigue e glass
FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue E-Glass

  • Demers, Cornelia. E. 1997 The National Seminar on Advanced Composite Material Bridges, May 5-7.


Normalized fatigue performance of glass vinyl ester
Normalized Fatigue Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester

F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 53-64.


Glass composite fatigue
Glass Composite Fatigue

1. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.5

2. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.33

3. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.16

4. 0°/90° glass

5. 30-40% glass in poly(hexamethylene adipamide), injection molded

6. 30-40% glass in polycarbonate injection molded

7. 30-40% glass in polyphenylenesulfide injection molded

8. 30-40% glass in poly(amide-imide) injection molded

9. Chopped-strand mat polyester

10. Sheet molding compound (smc) of rubber-modified epoxy

11. SMC, rubber-modified epoxy

12. SMC, r50

13. 0°/±45 ° /90° glass/epoxy

14. Chopped-strand mat polyester

Mandell, J. F., 1978, “Fatigue Behavior of Fibre-Resin Composites,” Developments in Reinforced Plastics 2, Properties of Laminates, Ed. G. Pritchard.


Mechanism fatigue of glass composites
Mechanism: Fatigue of Glass Composites

  • Crack growth in the fiber dominates the failure process

  • Accumulation of damage is accounted for in crack growth that takes place based on the fractional time spent at a damaging stress level

Glass fiber remaining strength given a s (t)


Fatigue simulation experiment
Fatigue Simulation & Experiment

UCFR - unidirectional continuous fiber/epoxy

UCMFR - unidirectional & continuous strand mat fiber/vinyl ester

S-N Slope (%UTS/decade)

Data: 10.2 and 13

Predictions: 12 to 14

F. McBagonluri, G. Foster, S. Case, W. Curtin, & J. Lesko, “ Simulation Of Fatigue Performance Of Polymeric Composites For Infrastructure Applications,” Simulation of Fatigue Performance of Polymeric Composites for Infrastructure Applications ASME IMECE 98, Anaheim CA, Nov 1998



Matrix effects s n curves for e glass laminates
Matrix Effects - S-N Curves for E-glass Laminates

  • Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.


Sizing matrix toughening effects
Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Sizing effects
Sizing Effects

  • EP - Epoxy Sizing

  • MP - Multi-pupose sizing

  • Epoxy Resin

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Pultruded as 4 derakane 411 35 li sizing effect
Pultruded AS-4/Derakane 411-35 LI: Sizing Effect

Input: R=0.1 Unidirectional Fatigue Data



Process type effects
Process Type Effects

  • FW - Filament Winding

  • PMC - Prepreg Press Molding

  • P - Pultrusion

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Process laminate effects pultruded cp prepreg cp woven
Process & Laminate Effects - Pultruded CP, Prepreg CP & Woven

Laminated

Stitched

or Woven

  • Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-013199-185939


Testing environmental effects
Testing & Environmental Effects

  • Testing

    • Mean Stress & R - Ratio

    • Frequency

  • Environmental

    • Hygrothermal

    • Temperature

    • pH Effects



Static vs dynamic fatigue
Static vs. Dynamic Fatigue

  • Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60


Test effects r ratio
Test Effects: R - ratio

  • Gathercole, Reiter, Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.


Test effects r ratio1
Test Effects: R - ratio

  • Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.



Enviro mechanical fatigue of glass vinyl ester
Enviro-mechanical Fatigue of Glass/Vinyl Ester

F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 53-64.


Temperature effects s n curves
Temperature Effects - S-N Curves

  • Branco, Ferreira, Fael & Richardson 1995 Int. J. Fatigue, V. 18, No. 4, p. 255


Effect of temperature effect on e glass frp fatigue
Effect of Temperature Effect on E-Glass FRP Fatigue

Pultruded E-Glass/Vinyl Ester

4 °C

30 °C

65 °C


So where are the gaps
So Where Are the Gaps?

  • Combined Conditions

    • Creep & Fatigue

    • Temperature & Fatigue

    • Temp, Moisture & Fatigue

    • Chemistry & Fatigue

    • Spectrum loadings (stress and environment)

  • Tools

    • Generalization of Glass Fatigue

    • Remaining strength representations for combined loading


Estimating remaining strength

Remaining Strength

N

Stress on Critical Element

Estimating Remaining Strength

Degradation Processes

  • Cycle dependent damage

  • Kinetic

  • Chemical

  • Thermodynamic

Geometry

Constitutive

Initial Strength

Stress or Strength

Life

Reifsnider & Stinchcomb, “A Critical Element Model of the Residual Strength and Life of Fatigue-loaded Composite Coupons,” ASTM STP 907, 1986


American society for composites
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR COMPOSITES

16th Annual Technical Conference

CALL FOR PAPERS

September 9-12, 2001Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VADonaldson Brown Hotel & Conference Center

Abstracts should be submitted no later than January 31, 2001.

M.W. Hyer by e-mail as a pdf file to [email protected]

http://www.esm.vt.edu/ASC/



Ranking of importance of data for fatigue effects
Ranking of Importance of Data for Fatigue Effects

Key:A composite

B composite/substrate interface;

adhesive (if any)

C substrate

Rank 5: Critical, cannot go forward without it

3: Important

1: Good to have


Ranking of availability of data for fatigue effects
Ranking of Availability of Data for Fatigue Effects

Key:A composite

B composite/substrate interface;

adhesive (if any)

C substrate

Rank1: Widely available and validated

3: Sparse and/or questionable

5: Not available


Overall ranking of gaps for fatigue effects
Overall Ranking of Gaps for Fatigue Effects

Key:A composite

B composite/substrate interface;

adhesive (if any)

C substrate

Rank2: Widely available and validated

6: Sparse and/or questionable

10: Not available



Fiber effects
Fiber Effects

Mandell, J. F. 1982


Material effects kevlar fibers 0 90
Material Effects - Kevlar Fibers - (0/90°)

  • Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July

KFRP


Material effects e glass fibers 0 90
Material Effects - E-Glass Fibers - (0/90°)

  • Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July

GRP


Material effects carbon fibers 0 90
Material Effects - Carbon Fibers - (0/90°)

  • Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

CFRP


Tensile fatigue damage mechanism
Tensile Fatigue Damage Mechanism

  • Kim & Ebert 1978, J. of Composite Matl., V. 12, April .


Manufacturing effects
Manufacturing Effects

  • S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg)

  • Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to

  • eo & log(N10)eo process related


Sizing matrix toughening effects1
Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Sizing effects1
Sizing Effects

  • EP - Epoxy Sizing

  • MP - Multi-pupose sizing

  • Epoxy Resin

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Process effects
Process Effects

  • FW - Filament Winding

  • PMC - Prepreg Press Molding

  • P - Pultrusion

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Sizing matrix toughening effects2
Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Summary from salvia et al
Summary from Salvia et al.

  • Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded

  • Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of

  • eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me


Tensile strain fatigue
Tensile Strain Fatigue

  • Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.


Tensile stress fatigue
Tensile Stress Fatigue

  • Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.


Material effects shear fatigue mean stress
Material Effects - Shear Fatigue - Mean Stress

  • Bevan 1977 Composites Oct. p. 277.


Fatigue failure mechanims fatigue stiffness loss crack development
Fatigue Failure Mechanims - Fatigue Stiffness Loss/Crack Development

  • Jamison etc. 1984 ASTM STP 836 p38


Fatigue failure mechanisms1
Fatigue - Failure Mechanisms

  • Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.


Fatigue fiber type
Fatigue - Fiber Type

  • Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

E-glass

Type I Carbon

Type II Carbon


Fatigue fiber type1
Fatigue - Fiber Type

  • Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

Type III Carbon


Environmental effects frequency
Environmental Effects-Frequency

  • Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60


Environmental effects dynamic fatigue
Environmental Effects- Dynamic Fatigue

  • Mandell & McGarry 1985 Polymer Composites Vol. 6 No. 3 p.168

Single Fiber - No

Fiber Interaction

Fiber Bundle


Environmental effects r ratio
Environmental Effects- R ratio

  • Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60


Environmental effects temperature
Environmental Effects-Temperature

  • Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.


Environmental effects hygrothermal aging
Environmental Effects-Hygrothermal Aging

Pooled Fatigue data

  • Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.


Environmental effects r ratio1
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.


Environmental effects r ratio2
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

where

e = endurance value of “f” at high N

fo = f value at low N

A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves


Environmental effects r ratio3
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.


Environmental effects r ratio4
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.


Environmental effects r ratio5
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.


Environmental effects r ratio6
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.


Environmental effects r ratio7
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245


Environmental effects r ratio8
Environmental Effects R - ratio

  • Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245



Fibers tensile strain fatigue
FIBERS - Tensile Strain Fatigue

  • Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p. 1665.

E-glass

Matrix

Graphite




Fibers shear stress fatigue 45 fibers
FIBERS - Shear Stress Fatigue(±45°) Fibers

  • Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.


Fibers torsional shear strain fatigue fiber resin
FIBERS - Torsional Shear Strain Fatigue - Fiber/Resin

  • Phillips & Scott 1977 Composites Oct. p. 233.


Material effects sizing
Material Effects - Sizing

  • Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137.


Material effects sizing1
Material Effects - Sizing

  • Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137.


Sizing matrix toughening effects3
Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects

  • Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.


Process laminate effects extracted uni from pultruded cp qi laminates vs uni
Process & Laminate Effects -Extracted Uni from Pultruded CP & QI Laminates vs. Uni

  • Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-013199-185939


Fibers tensile stress fatigue
FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue

  • Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p. 1665.

Graphite

E-glass


Test effects r ratio2
Test Effects: R - ratio

  • Adams, Dickson, etc. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, v. 11, no. 4, p.233.


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