# 4. Time Study - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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4. Time Study. The major objective of this chapter is to learn how to calculate a time standard based on stopwatch time study procedures. Time Study. A process for measuring the required time for performing a given task, by a given method, by a trained worker, working in a normal pace.

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4. Time Study

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## 4. Time Study

The major objective of this chapter is to learn how to calculate a time standard based on stopwatch time study procedures.

### Time Study

• A process for measuring the required time for performing a given task, by a given method, by a trained worker, working in a normal pace.

• Why needed?

• For methods improvement

• For determining time standards

### Needs for Time Standard

• Developing schedules

• Determining wage payment plans

• Estimating production costs

• Providing a base for estimating productivity goals

• Appraising employee performance

• Evaluating alternative process, equipment

### Methods for Creating Time Standards

• Direct time study

• Cyclic work

• Non cyclic work

• Work sampling

• Synthetic data

• Predetermined times

### Direct Time Study

• Methods improvement

• Selection of the examined workers

• Explanation (union, managers, workers)

• Collecting and recording information

### Methodology

• Who to choose?

• Select an Average Worker (What is average?)

• Experienced operator

• Normal pace

• Consistency (well defined, understood by all)

• No undue strain for entire day (speed/effort)

• Pace that should be performed, not average of current rate

• Rating accuracy

• Worker acceptance

• Can you suggest a better method?

### Preparation for Timing

• Identify the TASK/ CYCLE to be studied before time study

• Method

• Layout of workplace

• Equipment used

• Environmental conditions

• Machine speeds and feeds

• Inspection equipment

• Communications with foreman, workers

• Documents for process, task instructions

• Establish relationship

• Elemental analysis

### Fundamental definitions

• What is an ELEMENT?

• Element is a component of job or task that are logical divisions with easily identifiable starting and end points, and are repeated on a regular basis

• What is a CYCLE?

• Cycle is the completion of the activities (elements) required to perform the job under study.

### Element Analysis

• Every element must have an easily identifiable starting and ending point (breakpoints)

• No discontinuities between elements

• Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min (reasonable)

• Relative frequency must be included

### Timing Methods

• Continuous

• Advantage: Clock never stops, no time omitted

• Disadvantage: observer does not know at the job how individual elements vary

• Snapback

• Advantage: Observer can note individual variability within an element and eliminate substraction

• Disadvantages: difficult to coordinate eye, watch and task! Especially when operations are short

### Determining Number of Cycles

Time measurement

• Measuring time of each element

• The number of observation of each element depends on the significance level and required level of accuracy

### Rules for Performing Time Study

• Don’t comment to the worker during the task

• Stand (don’t sit) beside the worker

• Write every event (even though it may seems not important)

• Have a good position to observe

• Stop the study if the worker seems to be under pressure and it affects his/her work

### Time Study On Cyclic Work

• Rating evaluation may be written once in a couple of cycles

• Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min (reasonable)

• Denoting non-cyclic elements

• The breakpoint between elements should be clear (touch, push, etc.).

### Types of Elements

• Manual/machine (determines the task duration)

• Cyclic/non cyclic

• Fixed time/ variable time (i.e. loading time as a function of weight)

• Avoidable/unavoidable unproductive elements (sometimes hard to identify)

### Time Study on Non Cyclic Work

• Use continuous timing

• Divide the task into relatively large elements

• Write the evaluated performance rate at the end of each element

• Multiply the observed time with the rate and summarize the data

### Rating Evaluation Methods

• Subjective judgment

• Practice by watching movies

• For a study with long elements, rate each separately

• Methods:

• Speed rating

• Westinghouse

### Criteria for Successful Speed Rating Evaluation

• Experience in the class of work performed

• Selection of an operator who gives performances between 85 and 115

• Use of the average value of three or more independent studies

### Elements of Allowances

Personal Need

Basic Fatigue

Variable Fatigue

Unavoidable Delays

Avoidable Delays

Extra Allowances

Constant Allowances

Special Allowances

Total Allowances Allowances

+

Normal Time

=

Standard Time

### Standard Data Systems

Elemental times, based on previous time studies, which have been proven to be accurate and reliable.

Tabulated element standards that allow the measurement of a specific job without the use of timing devices.

### Construction Cost Estimating

Given we have the plans for a new building, how much labor is needed and what will it be used for?

### Punch Press Standard Data(40” strip)

Given we have a new part to run through the punch press, what will be the standard time for the part?

### Advantages Over Direct Time Study

• More consistent standards results

• Duplicate time studies on similar operations are eliminated

• Standards are established more rapidly

• Less experienced analysts can calculate standards (use the formula not develop it)

• Accurate labor costs and production times can be estimated before production begins

Model

Element119130220310311322329

100.240.220.230.230.240.220.23

200.380.350.350.370.360.360.37

3012.0610.448.716.5810.836.347.25

403.664.810.002.795.844.554.10

500.001.631.911.691.801.450.00

600.120.120.130.110.140.140.13

### Possible Drivers

ModelNT 3/4/5D1D2

11915.7218.0027.25

13016.8823.5033.50

22010.62 2.50 1.50

31011.06 3.00 7.25

31118.4725.0044.00

32212.3412.0018.25

32911.35 3.00 8.00

### Is there a relationship between D1 and the combined time for elements 30, 40, and 50?

n X1 X2 X1^2 X2^2 X1*X2

115.7218.00 247.1184324.00 282.96

216.8823.50 284.9344552.25 396.68

310.62 2.50 112.7844 6.25 26.55

411.06 3.00 122.3236 9.00 33.18

518.4725.00 341.1409625.00 461.75

612.3412.00 152.2756144.00 148.08

711.35 3.00 128.8225 9.00 34.05

Sums96.4487.00 1389.3998 1669.50 1383.25

r = 0.977

Y

X

Y = b0 + b1X

### Standard Times for Machining Operations

• How long will it take to drill a 1-inch hole through two inches of malleable cast iron?