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I. Types of Film. (STYLES) Realism -- Classicism --- Formalism -------------------------------------------------- Documentaries – Fiction -- Avant-Garde (TYPES). A. Objective Camera. Camera views scene as a remote spectator. Viewer forgets the camera is there. Realistic.

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slide2

(STYLES)

Realism -- Classicism --- Formalism

--------------------------------------------------

Documentaries – Fiction -- Avant-Garde

(TYPES)

a objective camera

A. Objective Camera

Camera views scene as a remote spectator.

Viewer forgets the camera is there.

Realistic

b subjective camera

B. Subjective Camera

Camera views a scene from the visual or emotional point of view of a character.

The camera draws attention to itself.

Manipulates meaning

Formalistic

subjective vs objective camera
Subjective vs. Objective Camera

Vertigo

D: Alfred Hitchcock, 1958

c realism in film

C. Realism in Film

Camera is an unmanipulated, objective mirror of the real world.

Everyday, realistic images

Basic experiences of everyday life

Loosely organized story

Emphasis on authenticity

realism cont

Realism (cont.)

Long, uninterrupted shots

Minimal editing

Natural lighting

1 arrival of a train realism

1. “Arrival of a Train” (Realism)

Lumieres brothers, 1896

Founders of cinematic realism.

Considered fascinating and terrifying.

A “actualités” (primitive documentary).

Arrival of a Train

2 the kiss realism

2. “The Kiss” (Realism)

Directed for Thomas Edison, 1896

A 47 second long actuality; one of the first films made available to the public.

Considered scandalous and “disgusting.”

The Kiss

3 hearts and minds realism

3. Hearts and Minds (Realism)

Davis, 1974

Primarily TV newsreel footage of Vietnam

Indictment of the US devastation of Vietnam

Turned public opinion against the war.

Hearts and Minds (Prostitution)

d classicism

D. Classicism

Story-oriented; based on entertainment value

Avoids extremes

The images chosen for their relevancy to the story and characters, rather than for their authenticity (realism) or formal beauty alone (formalism).

classicism cont

Classicism (cont.)

Hollywood stars

Controlled lighting and sets

Moderate editing

Generally visually appealing and highly romanticized

1 gone with the wind

1. Gone With the Wind

Victor Fleming, 1939

Epic Romance, Classic Hollywood Film

Gone With the Wind

2 the royal tenenbaums

2. The Royal Tenenbaums

Wes Anderson, 2001

Manipulation of the camera to better tell a story - cuts, reaction shots, slow motion, music, etc.

The Royal Tenenbaums

e expressionism formalism

E. Expressionism/Formalism

In-your-face; high degree of manipulation and editing

Stylized visuals (special effects)

Emphasis on technique and expression rather than story.

Manipulation of color and lighting

expressionism formalism cont

Expressionism/Formalism (cont.)

Filmmakers concerned with spiritual and psychological truths

Characters and events often extraordinary and symbolic

Often artificial genres: musicals, sci-fi, fantasy,etc.

1 a trip to the moon

1. A Trip to the Moon

Georges Melies, 1902

First science fiction film (silent)

Innovative use of special effects and animation

Whimsical fantasy based on purely imagined events.

A Trip to the Moon(3:00)

Conquest of the North Pole (5:00)

slide19

2. Pi

Darren Aronofsky, 1998

Psychological, surrealistic

Distorted imagery

High level of manipulation (editing, sound, lighting)

Emotive, dream-like, paranoid, and troubling

Pi

3 raging bull

3. Raging Bull

Martin Scorsese, 1980

Subjective camera

Fair level of manipulation

Plays with color, time, and camera angles

to create a visual story

Raging Bull (Start 1:00)

slide22

A. Cinematography: The making of lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. Closely related to the art of still photography.

b mise en scene
B. Mise en Scene
  • How visual elements are staged, framed and photographed. French for “placing on a stage.”
  • Involves:
    • size,
    • color,
    • light,
    • objects’ relationship to one another
1 the dominant
1.The Dominant

Where is our eye attracted first? Why?

The dominant can be created by: * the size of an object,

* a juxtaposition oflights and darks (esp. in black and white films),

* using a color that stands out from the others,

* placing one object in sharper focus than the rest of the shot.

slide25
The dominant in this shot is the character of Enid (Thora Birch).This is created by color, lighting and focus.
2 positioning of characters objects within a frame
2. Positioning of Characters & Objects within a frame
  • Positioning within a frame can draw our attention to an important character/object
  • A film-maker can use positioning to indicate relationships between people.
3 color
3. Color
  • Carries certain connotations which may add meaning (i.e. Red = Danger/Passion)
  • Can give a scene a particular look, feel or mood
  • Can be used for dramatic effect
cool tones left are associated with sadness and strife warm tones right are romantic and happier
Cool tones (left) are associated with sadness and strife. Warm tones (right) are romantic and happier.
4 lighting
4. Lighting

Lighting can be used to achieve a variety of effects:

  • Highlight important characters or objects within the frame
  • Make characters look mysterious by shading sections of the face & body
  • To reflect a character’s mental state/hidden emotions (i.e. bright = happy, dark = disturbed, strobe effect = confused
1 low key lighting
1. Low Key Lighting
  • Produces an overall darker picture.
  • Emphasizes diffused shadows and atmospheric pools of light.
  • Often used in mysteries and thrillers.
  • Tends to heighten the sense of alienation felt by the viewer, hence is commonly used in film noir, horror, mysteries and thrillers.
watch
Watch:

Raging Bull (Scorsese)

Barton Fink (Coens)

2 film noir
2. Film Noir
  • Term used to describe stylish, Hollywood crime dramas, popularized in the 1940-50s.
  • French for “black film.” Lighting is low key, very high contrast, and tends to be black and white.
  • Settings tend to be urban; swirling cigarette smoke adds an air of mystery.
  • Tone is fantastic and paranoid. Focuses on the dark side of humanity (violence, lust, greed, etc)
watch1
Watch:

Double Indemnity (Wilder)

Batman (Burton)

3 high key lighting
3. High Key Lighting
  • Bright, even illumination, with few conspicuous shadows.
  • Generally used in upbeat scenes, hence used mostly in comedies, musicals and light entertainment films.
watch2
Watch:

Some Like It Hot (Wilder)

Austin Powers (Roach)

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