I. Types of Film. (STYLES) Realism -- Classicism --- Formalism -------------------------------------------------- Documentaries – Fiction -- Avant-Garde (TYPES). A. Objective Camera. Camera views scene as a remote spectator. Viewer forgets the camera is there. Realistic.
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Realism -- Classicism --- Formalism
Documentaries – Fiction -- Avant-Garde
Camera views scene as a remote spectator.
Viewer forgets the camera is there.
Camera views a scene from the visual or emotional point of view of a character.
The camera draws attention to itself.
D: Alfred Hitchcock, 1958
Camera is an unmanipulated, objective mirror of the real world.
Everyday, realistic images
Basic experiences of everyday life
Loosely organized story
Emphasis on authenticity
Long, uninterrupted shots
Lumieres brothers, 1896
Founders of cinematic realism.
Considered fascinating and terrifying.
A “actualités” (primitive documentary).
Arrival of a Train
Directed for Thomas Edison, 1896
A 47 second long actuality; one of the first films made available to the public.
Considered scandalous and “disgusting.”
Primarily TV newsreel footage of Vietnam
Indictment of the US devastation of Vietnam
Turned public opinion against the war.
Hearts and Minds (Prostitution)
Story-oriented; based on entertainment value
The images chosen for their relevancy to the story and characters, rather than for their authenticity (realism) or formal beauty alone (formalism).
Controlled lighting and sets
Generally visually appealing and highly romanticized
Victor Fleming, 1939
Epic Romance, Classic Hollywood Film
Gone With the Wind
Wes Anderson, 2001
Manipulation of the camera to better tell a story - cuts, reaction shots, slow motion, music, etc.
The Royal Tenenbaums
In-your-face; high degree of manipulation and editing
Stylized visuals (special effects)
Emphasis on technique and expression rather than story.
Manipulation of color and lighting
Filmmakers concerned with spiritual and psychological truths
Characters and events often extraordinary and symbolic
Often artificial genres: musicals, sci-fi, fantasy,etc.
Georges Melies, 1902
First science fiction film (silent)
Innovative use of special effects and animation
Whimsical fantasy based on purely imagined events.
A Trip to the Moon(3:00)
Conquest of the North Pole (5:00)
Darren Aronofsky, 1998
High level of manipulation (editing, sound, lighting)
Emotive, dream-like, paranoid, and troubling
Martin Scorsese, 1980
Fair level of manipulation
Plays with color, time, and camera angles
to create a visual story
Raging Bull (Start 1:00)
A. Cinematography: The making of lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. Closely related to the art of still photography.
Where is our eye attracted first? Why?
The dominant can be created by: * the size of an object,
* a juxtaposition oflights and darks (esp. in black and white films),
* using a color that stands out from the others,
* placing one object in sharper focus than the rest of the shot.
Lighting can be used to achieve a variety of effects:
Raging Bull (Scorsese)
Barton Fink (Coens)
Double Indemnity (Wilder)
Some Like It Hot (Wilder)
Austin Powers (Roach)