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FILM TYPES AND FORMATS The Essential Reference Guide for Filmmakers Types of Motion Picture Film Camera Intermediate and Laboratory Print Camera Films Captures the original image.

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FILM TYPES AND FORMATS

The Essential Reference Guide for Filmmakers


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Types of Motion Picture Film

  • Camera

  • Intermediate and Laboratory

  • Print


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Camera Films

  • Captures the original image.

  • Negative film produces the reverse of the colors and/or tones our eye sees in the scene and must be printed on another film stock or transferred for final viewing.

  • Reversal film gives a positive image directly on the original camera film.


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Camera Film Color Balance

  • Camera films are balanced for 5500K daylight or 3200K tungsten.

  • Color films designated T are tungsten-balanced.

  • Color films designated D are daylight-balanced.



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Print Films

  • Print film is used to print both the first work print (when work print is being used) and multiple copies of the final edited version.

Color Print

Camera Negative

DIRECT PRINTING

Master Positive

Duplicate Negative

RELEASE PRINTING


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Film Gauge

  • Four common camera film gauges:

  • Super 8

  • 16 mm

  • 35 mm

  • 65 mm


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Image Format and Aspect Ratio

  • Aspect ratio is independent of gauge.


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1.37:1 and 1.33:1

Need to draw 1.33 dotted lines on this







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Shooting Formats

  • 1.37:1

  • 1.85:1

  • 1.66:1 (red) and 1.78:1 (cyan)


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4-perf Scope

  • A scope negative and print. The entire area will become the 2.40:1 image when unsqueezed.


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4-perf Super 35

  • The boxes in the images below show the aspects that can be taken from a Super 35 mm frame:

2.40:1

1.85:1

1.78:1 (16x9)


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4-perf Super 35

  • squeezed print of the 2.40:1

  • If shooting with a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, the image will also have to be resized to fit in a standard release format.


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3-perf

  • 1.85:1

  • 1.78:1 (16x9)

  • 1.37:1 (4x3)





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Super 16

1.66:1

1.78:1 (16x9)

1.85:1


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Super 16

  • WHY SUPER 16?


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16 mm

  • Regular 16mm image on single-perf 16 mm stock

  • 16 mm image on double-perf stock



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65 mm

We didn’t use this picture here in the book, does it work?



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Choosing a Film Stock

Suitability for


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What are Your Shooting Needs?

  • Where will your film end up? On film, or other electronic or digital format?

  • Are you working with daylight or tungsten lighting?

  • Unpredictable shooting? Low light conditions?

  • Do you need medium speed with better image structure?

  • High color saturation?

  • Blue screen work?

  • Lower contrast, more open shadows, softer look?


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Negative and Reversal Films

  • Negative

  • Range of speeds/balances/ looks available

  • Latest emulsion technology

  • Wide exposure latitude

  • Fine grained and sharp

  • Processing widely available

  • Printing/scanning necessary to view


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Negative and Reversal Films

  • Reversal

  • Direct positive image

  • Brilliant saturated colors

  • Fine grained and sharp

  • Narrow exposure latitude


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Film Speed

Film Speed


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Color Balance

  • Daylight film exposed in Daylight

  • Daylight film exposed in Tungsten


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Conclusion

  • QUESTIONS?


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