THEORY OF FLIGHT AND CANOPY CONTROL

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TLO. Given a deployed MS-360 or TR-375 canopy, with or without combat equipment and / or oxygen equipment, perform proper canopy control procedures from opening to landing.. . ELOs. Know post opening proceduresUnderstand theory of flight dynamicsKnow factors affecting flightKnow canopy controlKn

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THEORY OF FLIGHT AND CANOPY CONTROL

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1. THEORY OF FLIGHT AND CANOPY CONTROL MS-360/TR-375

2. TLO Given a deployed MS-360 or TR-375 canopy, with or without combat equipment and / or oxygen equipment, perform proper canopy control procedures from opening to landing.

3. ELOs Know post opening procedures Understand theory of flight dynamics Know factors affecting flight Know canopy control Know factors affecting control Know traffic and landing patterns Know normal landing procedures Know normal recovery procedures

4. Normal Deployment Sequence Deploy Pilot Chute and begin count to 6 sec Snatch force when dome slider inflates Snivel while slider remains inflated up high Inflation begins & slider begins come down after 6 seconds of snivel time Canopy should continue to show progress Canopy takes up to 1000 ft. to fully deploy

5. Post Opening Procedures Grasp rear risers upon opening Clear air space visually, turn with rear riser if necessary to avoid another jumper Check canopy visually for defects

6. Check Canopy Visually Shape: Is the canopy fully open, and rectangular (elliptical)? Stable: Is the canopy flying straight and stable? Serviceable: Identify any torn fabric or broken lines?

7. Gain Canopy Control Grab toggles Release the deployment brakes by pulling all toggles all the way down Conduct a controllability check

8. Controllability Check Look left, turn left 90° Look right, turn right 90° Bring all toggles to a full flare Find the stall point by holding all the toggles all the way down for 4 seconds

9. Controllability Check 50% Rule If the canopy requires more than 50% opposite toggle to counter a turn, the canopy is considered uncontrollable If the canopy stalls prior to 50% brakes, the canopy is considered uncontrollable

10. Slider Movement Pump slider down with rear risers upon initial deployment If brakes are already released, flare completely to bring slider down If slider will not come down close enough to reach, disregard and let it flap

11. Toggle Input Turns will be more responsive in nature and may require opposite toggle to stop on heading You should fly the canopy with the primary toggles only and take control of the flare toggles prior to entering the landing pattern

12. Theory Of Flight Nose Openings in the front form the air intake Allows the cells to be ram-air inflated Internal air pressure pushes a small amount of air ahead of the airfoil Stagnation point deflects relative air above and below the airfoil

13. Theory Of Flight Bernoulli’s Principle says that a fast moving fluid creates less pressure than a slow moving fluid Lift is the force that resists Gravity Drag is the force that that resists Thrust

14. Theory Of Flight The parafoil parachute system is a ram air inflated, fabric airfoil that generates lift by moving forward through the air It develops lift over its curved upper surface by creating a lower pressure than air moving under the wing at a slower speed

15. Theory Of Flight The ram air parafoil maintains its “angle of attack” by the relative lengths of the suspension lines being shorter at the nose than those at the tail of the wing This “angle of attack” creates artificial “thrust”

16. Factors Affecting Flight Drag Retards the canopy’s forward air speed Friction created by air flow over the canopy, lines, parachutist and equipment Turbulence, wind shear, humidity, etc. Suspended weight increases airspeed which in turn, increases drag as well Age of the canopy (F111 vs Zero-P)

17. Glide Ratio Comparison The MS-360 has a flatter glide slope than the MC5, shown here in medium winds The MS-360 has a glide slope of approximately 3 to 1

18. Performance Specifications Average airspeed for MS-360 is 23 knots Higher weight increases airspeed Higher altitude increases actual speed Maximum winds for jump operations is 18 knots

19. Factors Affecting Control Wind direction Wind speed / velocity Manipulation of the canopy Turbulence Dust Devils Go full flight, attain maximum airspeed

21. Wind Cone Get into the wind cone immediately after completing the controllability check Get onto appropriate heading immediately before collapsing the slider Stay in front of the “T” or “V” until 1,500 ft. When in front of the landing direction indicator, you are in the wind cone

22. Flight Plan Always remain upwind in the wind cone Use the 45° rule for positioning Holding / Running / Crabbing Use “S” turns only when appropriate Perform penetration checks every 1000’ Begin the landing pattern at 1,500 feet Use flat (braked) turns when appropriate

23. Canopy Grouping Locate low man or stick leader upon completion of the controllability check Steer towards leader to reduce distance Turn in behind the stack and into position 25 meters behind and offset up and side Use front riser trim tabs to reduce altitude and maintain position with canopy ahead Flare toggles may be used during HAHO jumps

24. Front Riser Trim Tabs Pull red handles on front risers to increase descent rate and forward dive angle Match descent angle of canopy ahead Can also prevent backing up in high winds Canopy may buck when all the way down Release by squeezing metal buckle Release completely before landing

25. Alternate Landing Areas Know where to go if L, R, Long or Short Decide with enough altitude to be on final approach by the 500 ft. rule Grouping, land with others for safety Don’t have a case of “Getbackitus” (It can be a deadly disease) If in doubt, don’t stretch it out!

26. Traffic and Landing Patterns Assess the traffic and wind situation Use 45 degree angles for positioning Keep your eyes open and watching for traffic in all directions, at all times Remember the flare toggles for landing

27. Landing Pattern Downwind leg starts approx 1,500 feet Base leg turn at approximately 750 feet Final approach turn at approximately 500’ The landing pattern legs may need to be extended slightly due to the better glide Turn altitudes are approximate and are based on position and winds

28. Landing Pattern Pre-plan landing pattern over DZ, avoiding obstacles if possible Be prepared to enter the landing pattern at different points in the legs Watch for opposing landing patterns No radical turns below 2000 feet

29. Landing 100’ Rule If making braked approach, let canopy go to full flight to gain airspeed If flare toggles are not in hand, do not try to get them, flare w/primary toggles Minor heading corrections of less than 10 degrees only

30. Final Approach Leave enough space to overshoot target Do not line up with any obstacles ahead If overshoot is imminent, use “S” turns to lose altitude while not affecting others Do not turn away from target when making “S” turns, always turn toward target 75% brakes may be used to shorten glide

31. Landing Flare height and timing Start to flare at approximately 15’ Flare slowly and smoothly, matching the speed at which the ground is coming up In low winds, the canopy may level off and plane across the ground as airspeed bleeds off before touchdown Stop flare only after feet are firmly down

32. Landing If flare is initiated too soon, hold toggles down and prepare for PLF Canopy should not stall, it is not necessary to let the toggles up????????? If flare is initiated too soon, but is recognized before completing, hold what you got, then continue when ground starts to come up to you

33. Recovery Procedures Once your feet are on the ground, reach up and push the risers to one side while stepping to the opposite direction Undo the leg straps and reconnect the quick ejector snaps Daisy chain the lines below the slider Place the canopy in the kit bag (if used), tail first, and snap it shut, don’t zip it

34. Questions?

35. Review What is your first procedure after the canopy is inflated and flying?

36. Review

37. Review Q. How does the MS-360 perform differently than the MC-5 during turns?

38. Review A. It is much more responsive

39. Summary Post opening procedures Theory of flight dynamics Factors affecting flight Canopy control Factors affecting control Traffic and landing patterns Normal landing procedures Normal recovery procedures

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