Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate

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Overview. What is ADDIE?Why ADDIE?Where do I start?. What is ADDIE?. Why ADDIE?. Where do I start?. Review. Who is responsible?. Who is responsible for the needs analysis?. Analyze. A
Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate

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1. Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate Systematic Learning Design TITLE PAGETITLE PAGE

2. Overview What is ADDIE? Why ADDIE? Where do I start? OVERVIEW These are the objectives for this session. OVERVIEW These are the objectives for this session.

3. What is ADDIE? WHAT IS ADDIE? ADDIE is a flexible and dynamic set of guidelines to design and develop effective training and performance support tools. It is simplistic in its design, and can create a ?shared vision? of the development process that shows the relationship between the various phases and can be applied to any kind of training. Developed in 1975, it was originally called SAT (Systems Approach to Training) by the military, while civilians called it ISD (Instructional Systems Development) Each section of the ADDIE model is important in the process of designing instruction. It overlaps with the evaluation process, showing that throughout, evaluation should be conducted to ensure the program is meeting the identified goals and needs. WHAT IS ADDIE? ADDIE is a flexible and dynamic set of guidelines to design and develop effective training and performance support tools. It is simplistic in its design, and can create a ?shared vision? of the development process that shows the relationship between the various phases and can be applied to any kind of training. Developed in 1975, it was originally called SAT (Systems Approach to Training) by the military, while civilians called it ISD (Instructional Systems Development) Each section of the ADDIE model is important in the process of designing instruction. It overlaps with the evaluation process, showing that throughout, evaluation should be conducted to ensure the program is meeting the identified goals and needs.

4. Why ADDIE? WHY ADDIE? ADDIE is a tried and trusted means of developing training and instruction. It is simple, easy to use, yet provides clear direction to assure that all areas are covered, thus allowing you to meet your training objectives. It will help make sure the project is : Organized Thorough Comprehensive Fitting to the identified need Effective WHY ADDIE? ADDIE is a tried and trusted means of developing training and instruction. It is simple, easy to use, yet provides clear direction to assure that all areas are covered, thus allowing you to meet your training objectives. It will help make sure the project is : Organized Thorough Comprehensive Fitting to the identified need Effective

5. Where do I start? WHERE DO I START? Anyone can use ADDIE and that is the best part! No matter what your skill level or how comfortable you are with designing training, YOU can use the ADDIE model and make it work for you. It is: Simple Well-tested Easy to modify Adaptable Lets first look at the ADDIE model again. WHERE DO I START? Anyone can use ADDIE and that is the best part! No matter what your skill level or how comfortable you are with designing training, YOU can use the ADDIE model and make it work for you. It is: Simple Well-tested Easy to modify Adaptable Lets first look at the ADDIE model again.

6. Review REVIEW First step is to: Analyze Second step is to: Design Third step is to: Develop Fourth step is to: Implement Fifth step is to: Evaluate REVIEW First step is to: Analyze Second step is to: Design Third step is to: Develop Fourth step is to: Implement Fifth step is to: Evaluate

7. Who is responsible? Who is responsible for the needs analysis? WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR NEEDS ANALYSIS? Anyone can request a project to start ? it can be anyone from the target audience up through executive leadership/management. It is critical to work with the target audience to know how the final project will impact them. You have to know what the audience NEEDS to know, not what you THINK they should know. Talk to everyone involved with the project to gain a full understanding of what the project is intended to do. Never assume what the project intention is, know what it is. During this phase, it is important to identify if the need fits the goals of the project. If the identified need is not a learning problem, a learning solution will not help. Before starting, always examine: Critical Information ? some questions to consider: What business/learning need drives the project? Is this a mandatory need or an identified one? What are the project goals and objectives? How will success be defined/measured? Who is the intended audience? What does the audience already know? What does the audience need to learn? What resources are currently available? What is the course intended to teach/convey? What materials/resources will be used? Who would best be able to design/deliver this training? Who are the subject matter experts (SME?s) for this training? Prior opportunities If prior learning was not effective ?why? what was too much or missing? Time between trainings ? refresher or new skill development? What protocol?s have changed or will be changing? WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR NEEDS ANALYSIS? Anyone can request a project to start ? it can be anyone from the target audience up through executive leadership/management. It is critical to work with the target audience to know how the final project will impact them. You have to know what the audience NEEDS to know, not what you THINK they should know. Talk to everyone involved with the project to gain a full understanding of what the project is intended to do. Never assume what the project intention is, know what it is. During this phase, it is important to identify if the need fits the goals of the project. If the identified need is not a learning problem, a learning solution will not help. Before starting, always examine: Critical Information ? some questions to consider: What business/learning need drives the project? Is this a mandatory need or an identified one? What are the project goals and objectives? How will success be defined/measured? Who is the intended audience? What does the audience already know? What does the audience need to learn? What resources are currently available? What is the course intended to teach/convey? What materials/resources will be used? Who would best be able to design/deliver this training? Who are the subject matter experts (SME?s) for this training? Prior opportunities If prior learning was not effective ?why? what was too much or missing? Time between trainings ? refresher or new skill development? What protocol?s have changed or will be changing?

8. Analyze A ? Analyze What do you want to achieve? What must be taught? What are the learning needs? Do Not Use the wrong focus Make it too easy or too hard Use incomplete, redundant, or inaccurate material ANALYZE The ANALYSIS phase plays an important role in the design process. Failure to fully examine what the learning need is, can result in poorly designed learning programs that do not meet the intended goals. In the long run, it is best to spend the most time involved in this stage of the process. It will help to make sure that all of the goals, needs, and expectations are being addressed. Serves as part of the QUALITY ASSURANCE process. Failure to analyze the situation can lead to the instructor to ?introduce mistaken assumptions into the project? http://www.intulogy.com/addie/analysis.html that can cause the learner to have the wrong focus. The material must fit the learner need ? making it too easy or too hard will lead to frustration and learners will not pay attention to the materials. The same can be said for redundancy. The use of incomplete, redundant, or inaccurate material can lead to disaster later. Learners often take with them what is hear if presented in a face-to-face situation, so if the material is incomplete or inaccurate, the learner may act based on what they heard, thus leading to possible mistreatment of the situation. What do you want to achieve? What must be taught? What are the learning needs? Do Not Use the wrong focus Make it too easy or too hard Use incomplete, redundant, or inaccurate material ANALYZE The ANALYSIS phase plays an important role in the design process. Failure to fully examine what the learning need is, can result in poorly designed learning programs that do not meet the intended goals. In the long run, it is best to spend the most time involved in this stage of the process. It will help to make sure that all of the goals, needs, and expectations are being addressed. Serves as part of the QUALITY ASSURANCE process. Failure to analyze the situation can lead to the instructor to ?introduce mistaken assumptions into the project? http://www.intulogy.com/addie/analysis.html that can cause the learner to have the wrong focus. The material must fit the learner need ? making it too easy or too hard will lead to frustration and learners will not pay attention to the materials. The same can be said for redundancy. The use of incomplete, redundant, or inaccurate material can lead to disaster later. Learners often take with them what is hear if presented in a face-to-face situation, so if the material is incomplete or inaccurate, the learner may act based on what they heard, thus leading to possible mistreatment of the situation. What do you want to achieve? What must be taught? What are the learning needs? Do Not Use the wrong focus Make it too easy or too hard Use incomplete, redundant, or inaccurate material

9. A - Analyze A - ANALYZE Existing materials can help to define the final content. Remember some information might be from a person, a subject matter expert rather than in written form. When determining what to train, ask open-ended questions ? this will lead to more complete information gathering. Look at the materials and determine what is relevant and necessary. Defining goals/objectives ensures the outcome meets the needs of the project. If these are not measurable, it will be difficult to determine if the project was useful and relevant. The more specific, the easier it is to measure success and there is less confusion from the learner as to what is expected. Vague goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients. Specific goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients by encouraging use of universal precautions. Highly specific goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients by 20% by requiring hand washing prior to patient contact by both staff and patient visitors. Make sure that the goals are achievable. Though a high level of expectation is good, you must determine if that goal is attainable ? as with the above example, expecting a reduction in occurrence of infection by 100% is unrealistic even though it is desired. Make sure that the training fits the desired timeline ? if significant changes will be implemented, allow adequate time for learners to attend prior to implementation. Know what the audience already knows ? remember, repetitive information will be forgotten or ignored. Learning must fit the learners skill level ? content must fit the learner?s understanding and comprehension. Involve the learner in the planning process ? ask them what they need to know about the subject. Make the objectives to the point ? provide a clear starting and ending point. The instructional analysis should provide step-by-step instructions from beginning to end. Missing or incorrect information can lead to poor performance later by the learners. Make the learning steps clear, concise, and concrete. Think like the learner, not the trainer ? this will help make sure that all the steps are covered and will provide the training the learner needs, not what you may think they need. Once the objectives are written ? have someone else review for accuracy and completeness. If they include specific steps in a process, have them complete the steps while you follow along to make sure no step was left out. Never assume the learner knows ? remember warning labels on a blow dryer specifically state: Do not use in water! (Gee, who would have thought?) A - ANALYZE Existing materials can help to define the final content. Remember some information might be from a person, a subject matter expert rather than in written form. When determining what to train, ask open-ended questions ? this will lead to more complete information gathering. Look at the materials and determine what is relevant and necessary. Defining goals/objectives ensures the outcome meets the needs of the project. If these are not measurable, it will be difficult to determine if the project was useful and relevant. The more specific, the easier it is to measure success and there is less confusion from the learner as to what is expected. Vague goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients. Specific goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients by encouraging use of universal precautions. Highly specific goal: Decrease occurrences of infection in surgical patients by 20% by requiring hand washing prior to patient contact by both staff and patient visitors. Make sure that the goals are achievable. Though a high level of expectation is good, you must determine if that goal is attainable ? as with the above example, expecting a reduction in occurrence of infection by 100% is unrealistic even though it is desired. Make sure that the training fits the desired timeline ? if significant changes will be implemented, allow adequate time for learners to attend prior to implementation. Know what the audience already knows ? remember, repetitive information will be forgotten or ignored. Learning must fit the learners skill level ? content must fit the learner?s understanding and comprehension. Involve the learner in the planning process ? ask them what they need to know about the subject. Make the objectives to the point ? provide a clear starting and ending point. The instructional analysis should provide step-by-step instructions from beginning to end. Missing or incorrect information can lead to poor performance later by the learners. Make the learning steps clear, concise, and concrete. Think like the learner, not the trainer ? this will help make sure that all the steps are covered and will provide the training the learner needs, not what you may think they need. Once the objectives are written ? have someone else review for accuracy and completeness. If they include specific steps in a process, have them complete the steps while you follow along to make sure no step was left out. Never assume the learner knows ? remember warning labels on a blow dryer specifically state: Do not use in water! (Gee, who would have thought?)

10. PRACTICE PRACTICE ACTIVITY ACTIVITY: have learners identify the difference between learning needs and performance needs, and then have them write a goal based on those learning needs. Examples include: Decrease number of needle sticks Increase accuracy of med pass Improve interpersonal skills Attend mandatory training sessions Boost staff morale Complete CPR training Improve attendance PRACTICE ACTIVITY ACTIVITY: have learners identify the difference between learning needs and performance needs, and then have them write a goal based on those learning needs. Examples include: Decrease number of needle sticks Increase accuracy of med pass Improve interpersonal skills Attend mandatory training sessions Boost staff morale Complete CPR training Improve attendance

11. Design D ? Design Transforms learning objectives into instructional strategies through the use of: DESIGN Takes the Learning Objectives to create an Instructional Strategy How to organize Presentation format Delivery format Activities/exercise Measure accomplishments Design Grouping/sequence of content ? What will work best for YOUR audience Step-by-step Known-unknown General-specific Methods for presentation Lecture ? not always effective as it does not always have enough interactivity Group discussion Modeling ? demonstrate and then let learner practice Scenarios Mnemonics ? use of words to help improve memory Drills Applied practice Presentation Format Instructor led Self-study ? usually paper based Synchronous or asynchronous e-learning Job aids Assessment to determine success What kind of assessment is needed ? skill or knowledge based? Design documents play an important part of the overall design process. Ensures content is relevant and meets the objective need. Shows the whole picture rather than just parts ? (fill gaps) By presenting the proposal to the person(s) requesting the training, it keeps them involved and ensures that the content meets the identified need. Helps to make sure that the language used is not too advanced (we all tend to use terms that are familiar to us, not realizing that not everyone is familiar with them) ? language needs to fit the user?s needs and understanding, additional reviewers can help to ensure this. Reviewers can provide feedback. It is better to know before you do the actual development of the project that you are on the wrong track ? we are our own worst editors: use others eyes to make the presentation the most effective Talking to those requesting the training can help bring other needs to light ? discussion is an excellent way to add pieces to the design that will clarify the need. If others are helping in the design/development, this document will help to provide a roadmap to the desired product and will keep everyone in sync. Has the course met the desired goals and objectives? DESIGN Takes the Learning Objectives to create an Instructional Strategy How to organize Presentation format Delivery format Activities/exercise Measure accomplishments Design Grouping/sequence of content ? What will work best for YOUR audience Step-by-step Known-unknown General-specific Methods for presentation Lecture ? not always effective as it does not always have enough interactivity Group discussion Modeling ? demonstrate and then let learner practice Scenarios Mnemonics ? use of words to help improve memory Drills Applied practice Presentation Format Instructor led Self-study ? usually paper based Synchronous or asynchronous e-learning Job aids Assessment to determine success What kind of assessment is needed ? skill or knowledge based? Design documents play an important part of the overall design process. Ensures content is relevant and meets the objective need. Shows the whole picture rather than just parts ? (fill gaps) By presenting the proposal to the person(s) requesting the training, it keeps them involved and ensures that the content meets the identified need. Helps to make sure that the language used is not too advanced (we all tend to use terms that are familiar to us, not realizing that not everyone is familiar with them) ? language needs to fit the user?s needs and understanding, additional reviewers can help to ensure this. Reviewers can provide feedback. It is better to know before you do the actual development of the project that you are on the wrong track ? we are our own worst editors: use others eyes to make the presentation the most effective Talking to those requesting the training can help bring other needs to light ? discussion is an excellent way to add pieces to the design that will clarify the need. If others are helping in the design/development, this document will help to provide a roadmap to the desired product and will keep everyone in sync. Has the course met the desired goals and objectives?

12. D - Design D ? DESIGN Organization Grouping/sequence of content ? What will work best for YOUR audience Step-by-step Known-unknown General-specific Methods for presentation Lecture ? not always effective as it does not always have enough interactivity Group discussion Modeling ? demonstrate and then let learner practice Scenarios Mnemonics ? use of words to help improve memory Drills Applied practice Delivery Format Instructor led Self-study ? usually paper based Synchronous or asynchronous e-learning Job aids Assessment to determine success What kind of assessment is needed ? skill or knowledge based? Design documents play an important part of the overall design process. Ensures content is ___________ and meets the _______________ ______________. Shows the ____________ _____________ rather than just parts ? (fill gaps) By presenting the proposal to the person(s) requesting the training, it keeps them _____________________ and ensures that the content meets the identified need. Helps to make sure that the ____________________ used is not too advanced (we all tend to use terms that are familiar to us, not realizing that not everyone is familiar with them) ? language needs to fit the user?s needs and understanding, additional reviewers can help to ensure this. Reviewers can provide ________________. It is better to know before you do the actual development of the project that you are on the wrong track ? we are our own worst editors: use others eyes to make the presentation the most effective. Talking to those requesting the training can help bring other needs to light ? discussion is an excellent way to add pieces to the design that will ________________ _________ ______________. If others are helping in the design/development, this document will help to provide a ___________________ to the desired product and will keep everyone in sync. Has the course met the desired ____________ and ____________________? D ? DESIGN Organization Grouping/sequence of content ? What will work best for YOUR audience Step-by-step Known-unknown General-specific Methods for presentation Lecture ? not always effective as it does not always have enough interactivity Group discussion Modeling ? demonstrate and then let learner practice Scenarios Mnemonics ? use of words to help improve memory Drills Applied practice Delivery Format Instructor led Self-study ? usually paper based Synchronous or asynchronous e-learning Job aids Assessment to determine success What kind of assessment is needed ? skill or knowledge based? Design documents play an important part of the overall design process. Ensures content is ___________ and meets the _______________ ______________. Shows the ____________ _____________ rather than just parts ? (fill gaps) By presenting the proposal to the person(s) requesting the training, it keeps them _____________________ and ensures that the content meets the identified need. Helps to make sure that the ____________________ used is not too advanced (we all tend to use terms that are familiar to us, not realizing that not everyone is familiar with them) ? language needs to fit the user?s needs and understanding, additional reviewers can help to ensure this. Reviewers can provide ________________. It is better to know before you do the actual development of the project that you are on the wrong track ? we are our own worst editors: use others eyes to make the presentation the most effective. Talking to those requesting the training can help bring other needs to light ? discussion is an excellent way to add pieces to the design that will ________________ _________ ______________. If others are helping in the design/development, this document will help to provide a ___________________ to the desired product and will keep everyone in sync. Has the course met the desired ____________ and ____________________?

13. Develop D ? Develop Storyboards/Templates Prototype Course Materials Course Review Pilot Session DEVELOP Once you have Analyzed, Designed, it is time to Develop your program. This can be accomplished by: Using storyboards and templates Prototyping prior to the first presentation Collecting the course materials Reviewing the completed course Running pilot session(s) ? DEVELOP Once you have Analyzed, Designed, it is time to Develop your program. This can be accomplished by: Using storyboards and templates Prototyping prior to the first presentation Collecting the course materials Reviewing the completed course Running pilot session(s) ?

14. D - Develop D ? DEVELOP Design storyboards or other templates that will be used. This helps keep the presentation organized and on track. Some prototyping examples and when they might be used: Classroom/Face-to-Face settings: templates and instructor guides E-learning: storyboards that show text, images, layout, animations, voice Blended Learning: sample pages and/or storyboards Web-based Class: sample pages and instructor guides Job Aids: mockups that show design and layout Once the prototype is complete, review them for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. Inconsistency in the design can lead to learner distraction. Course Materials ? these should have been identified during the Analysis phase, but should be checked again for relevancy and availability. Have newer editions of books been published, have methods or practices changed and how, have guidelines or requirements changed or will they be changing? Course objectives ? revisit objectives. Do they remain relevant? Are changes needed? Templates, storyboards, sample pages, instructor guides, etc. should be created based on the objectives and information gathered during the analysis and design phases. Look for ideas for handouts or other visual aids. Make sure they are relevant to the content and that they are current and fit the needs of the learners. (They are not too advanced or simplistic in nature) Course Review - Once the draft is complete, review the course in it?s entirety. Have the development team look at it for spelling errors, grammar, and appearance. Have the SME?s review for content to be sure that everything remains accurate. Use the first draft to review with the development team Make sure the design and content meet the goals and objectives Check for: Accuracy Completeness Relevance Pilot Session Prior to holding the first pilot test, develop a list of questions that will help to identify known or possible issues. Knowing in advance where possible problems exist will help to solve them later. Pilot testing allows you to see how well the learner interacts with the course. Is the wording appropriate for the learning level? Does the material meet the learner need? Are the materials to easy or too difficult for the learner to grasp? Has the course met the desired goals and objectives? D ? DEVELOP Design storyboards or other templates that will be used. This helps keep the presentation organized and on track. Some prototyping examples and when they might be used: Classroom/Face-to-Face settings: templates and instructor guides E-learning: storyboards that show text, images, layout, animations, voice Blended Learning: sample pages and/or storyboards Web-based Class: sample pages and instructor guides Job Aids: mockups that show design and layout Once the prototype is complete, review them for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. Inconsistency in the design can lead to learner distraction. Course Materials ? these should have been identified during the Analysis phase, but should be checked again for relevancy and availability. Have newer editions of books been published, have methods or practices changed and how, have guidelines or requirements changed or will they be changing? Course objectives ? revisit objectives. Do they remain relevant? Are changes needed? Templates, storyboards, sample pages, instructor guides, etc. should be created based on the objectives and information gathered during the analysis and design phases. Look for ideas for handouts or other visual aids. Make sure they are relevant to the content and that they are current and fit the needs of the learners. (They are not too advanced or simplistic in nature) Course Review - Once the draft is complete, review the course in it?s entirety. Have the development team look at it for spelling errors, grammar, and appearance. Have the SME?s review for content to be sure that everything remains accurate. Use the first draft to review with the development team Make sure the design and content meet the goals and objectives Check for: Accuracy Completeness Relevance Pilot Session Prior to holding the first pilot test, develop a list of questions that will help to identify known or possible issues. Knowing in advance where possible problems exist will help to solve them later. Pilot testing allows you to see how well the learner interacts with the course. Is the wording appropriate for the learning level? Does the material meet the learner need? Are the materials to easy or too difficult for the learner to grasp? Has the course met the desired goals and objectives?

15. Implement I ? Implement Establish a timeline Notify supervisors Schedule learners Select & schedule trainer Arrange delivery of materials Ensure adequate resources IMPLEMENT By this time, the course has reached the final phases. It is here that you begin to focus on logistics and any delivery issues that might occur. Take the time to make sure the following areas have been taken into consideration: Establish a timeline Notify supervisors of the upcoming session times so they can schedule attendees Schedule learners based on availability, need, supervisor inputs Schedule the trainer(s) to be available ? always have a back-up: Life happens Arrange for any course materials to be assembled and delivered to the appropriate location(s) Arrange for other resources: scheduling rooms multi-media equipment sound equipment seating tables, or space if it is an activity any other resource that fits the specific course need IMPLEMENT By this time, the course has reached the final phases. It is here that you begin to focus on logistics and any delivery issues that might occur. Take the time to make sure the following areas have been taken into consideration: Establish a timeline Notify supervisors of the upcoming session times so they can schedule attendees Schedule learners based on availability, need, supervisor inputs Schedule the trainer(s) to be available ? always have a back-up: Life happens Arrange for any course materials to be assembled and delivered to the appropriate location(s) Arrange for other resources: scheduling rooms multi-media equipment sound equipment seating tables, or space if it is an activity any other resource that fits the specific course need

16. Evaluate E ? Evaluate Did learners enjoy the course Were the objectives met Did the objectives meet the identified needs/goals EVALUATE Now that you have Analyzed, Designed, Developed, and Implemented your course, it is time to Evaluate it. At this phase, you want to ask yourself, your team, and your learners what they thought of the course. Some things you will want to ask yourself, and others (though there are many others) include: Did the learners enjoy the course? Were the objectives/needs met? Did the objectives/needs meet the identified needs/goals? What suggestions were made for future sessions? What problems occurred, and how can they be remedied? What improvements would help make the course better? What positive things occurred from the course? What unexpected positives happened? EVALUATE Now that you have Analyzed, Designed, Developed, and Implemented your course, it is time to Evaluate it. At this phase, you want to ask yourself, your team, and your learners what they thought of the course. Some things you will want to ask yourself, and others (though there are many others) include: Did the learners enjoy the course? Were the objectives/needs met? Did the objectives/needs meet the identified needs/goals? What suggestions were made for future sessions? What problems occurred, and how can they be remedied? What improvements would help make the course better? What positive things occurred from the course? What unexpected positives happened?

17. Word of Caution CAUTION A word of caution: Though the Implementation phase appears to come before the Evaluation phase, it may not always be so. It is sometimes important to evaluate thoroughly before implementing, especially for a large course or project. This will help to eliminate any errors that may invalidate the training or discover any problems that might not have been discovered during the planning phases. This is why on the model the evaluation phase is associated with all of the other phases. Evaluation should occur throughout the process to help solve problems before they happen. The more eyes that see the project, the less chance of error during delivery, and the greater change you have of being a success!CAUTION A word of caution: Though the Implementation phase appears to come before the Evaluation phase, it may not always be so. It is sometimes important to evaluate thoroughly before implementing, especially for a large course or project. This will help to eliminate any errors that may invalidate the training or discover any problems that might not have been discovered during the planning phases. This is why on the model the evaluation phase is associated with all of the other phases. Evaluation should occur throughout the process to help solve problems before they happen. The more eyes that see the project, the less chance of error during delivery, and the greater change you have of being a success!

18. Resources Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction. (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Bacon and Allyn. Driscoll, M. (2002). Web-based training: Creating e-learning experiences. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. Intuology. (2008). The addie instructional design model: A structured training methodology. Retreived from: http://www.intulogy.com/addie/ Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Mager, R. F. (1997). Making instruction work: A step-by-step guide to designing and developing instruction that works (2nd ed.) Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance. Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance.


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