Q uestionnaire d esign
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Q UESTIONNAIRE D ESIGN. O ften misused words generate misleading thoughts Herbert Spencer. The STOCK / LIVESTOCK Case The range of error due to use of imprecise words may be as high as 20 to 30 percent. Relevance and Accuracy. T he S teps in a S urvey P roject.

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Q uestionnaire d esign

QUESTIONNAIREDESIGN


O ften misused words generate misleading thoughts herbert spencer

Often misused words generate misleading thoughtsHerbert Spencer

TheSTOCK / LIVESTOCKCase

The range of error due to

use of imprecise words

may be as high as 20 to 30

percent.

Relevance and Accuracy

Questionnaire Design


T he s teps in a s urvey p roject

TheStepsin aSurveyProject

Establish the goals of the project

Determine your sample - Whom to interview

Choose interviewing methodology - How to interview

Create your questionnaire

Questionnaire Design


T he i nterviewing m ethods

TheInterviewingMethods

  • Personal Interviews

  • Telephone Surveys

  • Email Surveys

  • Internet/Intranet (Web Page) Surveys

    Choice of survey method will depend on several

    factors : Speed,  Cost, Internet Usage, Literacy Levels, Sensitive Questions

Questionnaire Design


Q uestion t ypes

QuestionTypes

Researchers use three basic types of questions:multiple

choice, numeric open end and text open end. Examples of

each kind of question follow:

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

Questionnaire Design


Designing the questionnaire

Designing the Questionnaire

It’s all about the questions…

  • Effect of a given word

  • Balance in question wording

  • Don’t know answers – offered or volunteered?

  • Using scales

  • Question order

  • Pre-testing

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

The Effect of One Word

How important do you think it is for the GOVERNMENT to set up a hotline telephone number people can call to get help when they have problems with their health plan?

How important do you think it is

to have a hotline telephone number people can call to get help when they have problems with their health plan?

To have a hotline

For government to set up a hotline

Very Important

Somewhat Important

Not too important

Not at all important

Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard University National Survey of Americans’ Views on Consumer Protections in managed Care, January 1998

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

Balance in Question Wording

  • What’s wrong with these questions?

    • Do you support the India taking military action against Pakistan?

    • If you heard that Candidate X supported stricter gun control laws, would that make you more likely to vote for her?

    • Did you happen to vote in the presidential election in 2000?

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

Balance in Question Wording

  • Bad questions, improved:

    • Do you support or oppose the India taking military action against Pakistan?

    • If you heard that Candidate X supported stricter gun control laws, would that make you more likely to vote for her, less likely to vote for her, or wouldn’t it make much difference?

    • Did you happen to vote in the presidential election in 2000, or not?

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

Don’t Know Answers – offered or volunteered?

Do you favor or oppose the government offering parents money or "vouchers" to send their children to private or religious schools, or public schools outside their district?

Do you favor or oppose the government offering parents money or "vouchers" to send their children to private or religious schools, or public schools outside their district, or haven’t you heard enough about that to have an opinion?

Oppose

Oppose

No opinion

Favor

Favor

No opinion

NPR/Kaiser Family Foundation/Kennedy School of Government Education Survey, June 1999 (conducted June 25 – July 19, 1999)

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

Using scales – getting to “the most”

Now, I’m going to read you some different health care issues. As I read each one, please tell me how important you think it is for the President and Congress to deal with this issue – very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not important at all.

When forced to choose…

Which of the following issues you say are very important do you think is most important?*

Percent saying “most important”

Percent saying “very important”

Helping people age 65 and over pay for prescription medicines

Making Medicare more financially sound for future generations

Increasing the number of Americans covered by health insurance

Helping states with the cost of Medicaid

*Also includes those who named only one issue as “very important”

Lowering the cost of medical malpractice insurance for physicians

Questionnaire Design

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation Health Poll Report


Q uestionnaire d esign

How questions can affect one another

  • Ask general questions before specific priority questions in order to obtain unbiased responses (e.g. most important problem facing the nation) – FUNNEL TECHNIQUE

  • Pay attention to how one question might influence answers to future questions:

    • In considering whether or not to vote for a political candidate, how important is the candidate’s position on HIV/AIDS in making your choice?

    • What do you think are the two most important health care issues for the government to address?

Questionnaire Design


T esting the q uestionnaire

Testing the Questionnaire

  • Pre-testing

    The last step in questionnaire design is to test a questionnaire with a small number of interviews before conducting your main interviews. Ideally, you should test the survey on the same kinds of people you will include in the main study. This kind of test run can reveal unanticipated problems with question wording, instructions to skip questions, etc. It can help see if the interviewees understand your questions and giving useful answers.

    If you change any questions after a pre-test, you should not combine the results from the pre-test with the results of post-test interviews.

Questionnaire Design


Q uestionnaire d esign

References

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research: iPoll http://roperweb.ropercenter.uconn.edu/iPOLL/

American Association for Public Opinion Research http://aapor.org/

National Journal: Poll Track http://nationaljournal.com/

Kaiser Family Foundation: Kaiser Health Poll Report http://www.kff.org/healthpollreport

Strategos Institute at http://www.stategos.com/survey/

Zikmund G. William, Business Research Methods 7E, Chapter 15, Pg: 329 – 331, 344 – 347.

Questionnaire Design


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