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PIXEL. H. Wieman HFT CDO LBNL 25-26-Feb-2008. topics. Pixel specifications and parameters Pixel silicon Pixel Readout STAR telescope tests Mechanical organization. Pixel geometry. End view. 8 cm radius. 20 cm. 2.5 cm radius. Inner layer Outer layer.  coverage +-1.

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H. Wieman






  • Pixel specifications and parameters

  • Pixel silicon

  • Pixel Readout

    • STAR telescope tests

  • Mechanical organization

Pixel geometry

Pixel geometry

End view

8 cm radius

20 cm

2.5 cm radius

Inner layer

Outer layer

 coverage +-1

One of two half cylinders

total 40 ladders

Some pixel features and specifications

Some pixel features and specifications

Silicon program

Silicon program

pixel chips (MAPS) produced by

IReS/LEPSI  IPHC (Strasbourg)

M. Winter

C. Hu

C. Colledani

W. Dulinski

A. Himmi

A. Shabetai

M. Szelezniak

I. Valin



  • Properties:

  • Signal created in low-doped epitaxial layer (typically ~10-15 μm)

  • Sensor and signal processing integrated in the same silicon wafer

  • Standard commercial CMOS technology

Iphc functional sensor development

IPHC Functional Sensor Development

All sensor families:

  • 30 x 30 µm pixels

  • CMOS technology

  • Full Reticule = 640 x 640 pixel array

Mimostar 2 => full functionality 1/25 reticule, 1.7 µs integration time (1 frame@50 MHz clk), analog output. (in hand and tested)

Phase-1 and Ultimate sensors => digital output (in development)

Data Processing in RDO and on chip by generation of sensor.

next year

The RDO system design evolves with the sensor generation.

Phase 1 – Nov 2008

Ultimate – Nov 2009

Leo Greiner

Mimostar 2 3 technology

MIMOSTAR 2/3 technology

Grzegorz Deptuch

Phase 1 ultimate technology mimosa8 16 22

Phase 1 / Ultimate technology (MIMOSA8/16/22)


  • Preliminary tests in Saclay of chips with 20 µm and 14 µm thick epitaxy layer

    • Fe55 tests

    • Noise and Fixed pattern noise measured

  • In beam MIP detection efficiency measured with silicon strip telescope

IHCP Marc Winter et al


IHCP Marc Winter et al


IHCP Marc Winter et al

Silicon summary development of star pixels

Silicon summary, development of STAR pixels

  • Finished MIMOSTAR 2 with readout development

  • Working on MIMOSTAR 3 studies

  • Fab Phase 1 based on MIMOSA16/22 technology (digital output, no zero suppression)

  • Fab Ulitimate based on MIMOSA16/22 and SUZE technology (digital with zero suppression)

  • Issues

  • MIMOSTAR 3 yield

  • Radiation hardness (bulk damage)

    • Reduce temperature

    • Investigate silicon improvements

Readout system

Readout system


Leo Greiner

Xiangming Sun

Michal Szelezniak

Thorsten Stezelberger

Chinh Vu

Howard Matis

System design physical layout

Sensors, Ladders, Carriers

(interaction point)

LU Protected Regulators,

Mass cable termination

RDO Boards


System Design – Physical Layout

1 m –

Low mass twisted pair

30 m




6 m - twisted pair

100 m - Fiber optic cables

Magnet Pole Face

(Low Rad Area ?)

DAQ Room

Leo Greiner

Detailed system structure system level functioning

Detailed System Structure – System Level Functioning

Data rates parameters

Data Rates - Parameters


  • 2.5 hits / cluster.

  • 1 kHz average event rate.

  • 10 inner ladders, 30 outer ladders.

  • No run length encoding.

R = 8.0


R = 2.5

200 us



640 us

Leo Greiner

Data rates

Data Rates

  • Ultimate => 49.7 MB / s raw addresses.

  • Phase–1 => 59.6 MB / s raw addresses

  • Dead time primarily limited by number of externally allocated readout buffers

Prototype test in star with 3 sensor telescope

Stack of 3 MIMOSTAR2 pixel chips,

Chip dimension: 4 mm X 4mm, 128 X 128 pixels

Prototype test in STAR with 3 Sensor Telescope

Our goal was to test functionality of a prototype MIMOSTAR2 detector in the environment at STAR in the 2006-2007 run at STAR. We obtained information on:

  • Charged particle environment near the interaction region in STAR.

  • Performance of our cluster finding algorithm.

  • Performance of the MIMOSTAR2 sensors.

  • Functionality of our tested interfaces to the other STAR subsystems.

  • Performance of our hardware / firmware as a system.

  • The noise environment in the area in which we expect to put the final PIXEL detector.

Telescope daq

Telescope DAQ

Distribution of track angles in mimostar2 telescope

Distribution of track angles in Mimostar2 telescope

Xiangming Sun


Summary of 2007 au au test in star

Summary of 2007 Au + Au test in STAR

  • Integrated background small compared to real interaction signals

  • No noise pickup

  • Hit rate as expected

  • Readout system worked well in the STAR trigger DAQ environment

  • Cluster finding system worked well

Digital data transfer test lvds

Digital data transfer test (LVDS)

ladder data generator

6 m robust twisted pair cable

  • 200 MHz test

  • 160 MHz required

  • 40 data pairs (one ladder worth)

  • Programmed tuning of each IO delay on Virtex5 FPGA, 7.5 ps steps

  • No bit errors, 12 hr, random data

5 ns

Virtex5 development board

mother board

DDL/SIU fiber link

42 fine gauge twisted pairs

eye pattern

Duplicate ~10 times for final system

Mechanical program

Mechanical Program

  • Eric Anderssen, LBNL engineer working on ATLAS pixels is phasing into our pixel program – full time in April 2008 (carbon composite expert)

  • Contracted ARES company for analysis on cooling, precision mount design and refinement of ladder stability.

    • Phone meetings weekly

    • Report due end February


HFT Mechanical requirements

Full self consistent spatial mapping prior to installation

Installation and removal does not disturb mapping

Rapid replacement

20 Micron stability

(mapping of BaBar with visual coordinate machine)

Rapid installation 8hr while preserving spatial map

Rapid installation (8hr) while preserving spatial map



  • Silicon design and development carried out by IPHC

    • additional testing at LBNL

  • Readout system with STAR integration, well advanced, LBNL

  • Mechanical work

    • Project engineer: Eric Anderssen LBNL

    • Consulting work: ARES corporation, Los Alamos branch

Next slide backup

Next slide backup








Silicon cost

Silicon Cost

8 inch wafers

60 chips/wafer

237 k$ incremental silicon cost for the 3 spare copies

Yearly dose numbers

yearly dose numbers

  • Au + Au

  • RHIC II luminosity: 7X1027 1/(cm2 sec)

  • Weeks per year operation: 25

  • Fraction of up time: 60%

  • radius: 2.5 cm

    • pion dose: 73 kRad

    • UPC electron dose: 82 kRad

    • Total dose: 155 kRad

    • TLD measured projection: 300 kRad

  • radius: 8 cm

    • pion dose: 7 kRad

    • UPC electron dose: 2 kRad

    • Total dose: 9 kRad

    • TLD measured projection: 29 kRad

Rdo board s

RDO Board(s)

Two board System – Virtex-5 Development board mated to a new HFT motherboard

Xilinx Virtex-5 Development Board

New motherboard

  • Digital I/O LVDS Drivers

  • 4 X >80 MHz ADCs

  • PMC connectors for SIU

  • Cypress USB chipset

  • SODIMM Memory slot

  • Serial interface

  • Trigger / Control input

Note – This board is designed

for development and testing.

Not all features will be loaded

for production.

  • FF1760 Package

  • 800 – 1200 I/O pins

  • 4.6 – 10.4 Mb block RAM

  • 550 MHz internal clock

Leo Greiner

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