Imperialism. Causes of Imperialism Economic Motives The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets. Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.
Economic Motives The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets.
Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.
Balance of Power European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors.
White Man's Burden The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered.
Competition for colonies by European countries in Africa was intense.
By the late 1800, most of Africa was ruled by European countries
Connects Mediterranean and Red Seas.
Built by the French in 1869. Allowed ships to cut thousands of miles off the trip from Europe to India
Bought up stock in the company and took over countries by the Red Sea.
To prevent fighting over Africa, representatives from Europe met to lay down rules for competition.
No African ruler attended.
Africa was divided into colonies by European countries
Only two countries remained independent – Ethiopia and Liberia.
The largest empire the world had known:
100 times larger than Britain
¼ of the world’s land and population
Under British control from the 1700s
The cornerstone of the British Empire, India provided raw materials (cotton), labor, and a market for goods to be sold.
Indian soldiers were offended by the beef/pork fat used to seal bullets (Muslims forbidden to eat pork, Hindus forbidden to eat beef)
Rebelled against British leadership
British easily defeated the Indians
By the early 1900s, many Indians were calling for self-government.
India becomes independent in 1947.
Manchu Dynasty in control
Chinese merchants produced what China needed – Chinese considered European products inferior
Europeans allowed to trade at only one port
Britain smuggled opium (habit-forming narcotic) into China
The Chinese became addicted, needing more and more.
This weakened the Chinese government, leading to the Opium Wars (China vs. Britain)
Fought mostly at sea.
Britain won and legalized opium (humiliating for Chinese)
Divided country into regions where foreigners would control the economic interest
United States feared being left out and proposed a policy that would allow competition on equal terms.
This policy kept China from being carved up into colonies like Africa
The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (nicknamed Boxers by English)
Chinese who opposed westerners
Destroyed railroads, burned bridges, and killed Europeans
Although this rebellion failed, it was a clear message that the Chinese wanted to get rid of foreigners
Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.) forced Japan to open ports for trade
Treaty of Kanagawa Opened Japanese ports to U.S. and gave extraterritorial rights to Americans
Lacked raw materials and food
Won trading rights in Korea from China
War with Russia in 1905 over Manchuria (rich in resources)
Aggression shocked west – demanded respect
Success of Am. and Fr. Revolutions, the Enlightenment, and nationalism led much of Latin America to demand independence
Napoleon’s conquest of Spain led Spanish colonies to rebel:
Argentina and Chile win independence under Jose San Martín
Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador and Peru win independence under Simon Bolivar
Central American countries declare independence – 1823
1823 President James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine saying the U.S. would not allow the Americas to be divided into colonies
U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt against Colombia.
Panama won – leased U.S. land for a canal.
In 1914, the Panama Canal opened, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific.