Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms. Chapter 19. The Unalienable Rights. Rights & Liberties in American Political thought Civil Rights make Constitutional promises equal for everyone Civil Liberties are protections against the government
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Engle v Vitale, 1962 carefully – PRAYERS & THE BIBLE. The Court has ruled against any laws requiring or suggesting prayers or the religious use of the Bible in public schools
Westside Community Schools v Mergens, 1990 – STUDENT RELIGIOUS GROUPS. The Court has ruled that schools must allow student religious groups to meet in the school on the same terms that it sets for other student organizations
Epperson v Arkansas, 1908 – EVOLUTION. The Court has struck down State laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution or mandating the teaching of the Biblical account of creation
Lynch v Donnelly, 1984 – SEASONAL DISPLAYS. The Court has held that public displays of religious beliefs are permissible only if they are part of an otherwise nonreligious or multi-religious display.
Marsh v Chambers, 1983 – CHAPLAINS IN CONGRESS AND STATE LEGISLATURES. The Court allows daily prayer in Congress and the State legislatures because such prayer is based on tradition and because adults, unlike schoolchildren, are not “susceptible to religious indoctrination or peer pressure.”
Bob Jones University v U.S., 1983 – TAX EXEMPTIONS. The Court allows tax exemptions for religious organizations, but denies tax-exempt status to religious organizations that practice racial discrimination
Mitchell v Helms, 2000 – STATE AID TO PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. State aid to parochial schools exists in many forms, but is controversial.
Lemon v Kurtzman, 1971 – THE LEMON TEST. The purpose of state aid to religious schools must be secular, not religious, that its primary effect must not be to aid or inhibit religion; and that it must avoid an “excessive entanglement of government with religion.”
Mutual Film Co. v Ohio, 1971 – MOTION PICTURES. The get freedom of the press, but are subject to obscenity ruling
Red Lion Broadcasting v FCC, 1969 – RADIO AND TV. These are subject to extensive federal regulation because they use public airwaves to broadcast their materials. Many states regulate their shows today.
Tinker v Des Moines, 1969 – SYMBOLIC SPEECH. The Court has ruled both ways in deciding cases of freedom of expression by conduct. Their decisions have depended on the circumstances surrounding the incident
44 Liquormart Inc., v Rhode Island, 1996 – COMMERCIAL SPEECH. Advertising is now protected by the 1st and 14th amendments; however, false advertisement is forbidden.