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Civil Rights. Civil Rights. When Did segergation start?. Civil Rights. Indentured Servants Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies. Civil Rights. There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation. Civil Rights. Constitutional Convention. Civil Rights.

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civil rights1
Civil Rights
  • When Did segergation start?
civil rights2
Civil Rights
  • Indentured Servants
  • Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies
civil rights3
Civil Rights
  • There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation
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Civil Rights
  • Constitutional Convention
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Civil Rights
  • John Jay, great supporter of the Constitution after its creation and an author of The Federalist wrote in 1786, "It is much to be wished that slavery may be abolished. The honour of the States, as well as justice and humanity, in my opinion, loudly call upon them to emancipate these unhappy people. To contend for our own liberty, and to deny that blessing to others, involves an inconsistency not to be excused."
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Civil Rights
  • Patrick Henry, the great Virginian patriot, was outspoken on the issue, despite his citizenship in a slave state. In 1773, he wrote, "I believe a time will come when an opportunity will be offered to abolish this lamentable evil. Everything we do is to improve it, if it happens in our day; if not, let us transmit to our descendants, together with our slaves, a pity for their unhappy lot and an abhorrence of slavery."
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Civil Rights
  • The Constitution has often been called a living tribute to the art of compromise. In the slavery question, this can be seen most clearly. The Convention had representatives from every corner of the United States, including, of course, the South, where slavery was most pronounced. Slavery,
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in fact, was the backbone of the primary industry of the South, and it was accepted as a given that agriculture in the South without slave labor was not possible. nation.

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Though slaves were not cheap by any measure, they were cheaper than hiring someone to do the same work. The cultivation of rice, cotton, and tobacco required slaves to work the fields from dawn to dusk.

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If the nation did not guarantee the continuation of slavery to the South, it was questioned whether they would form their own nation.

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Slavery is seen in the Constitution in a few key places. The first is in the Enumeration Clause, where representatives are apportioned. Each state is given a number of representatives based on its population - in that population, slaves, called "other persons," are counted as three-fifths of a whole person.

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This compromise was hard-fought, with Northerners wishing that slaves, legally property, be uncounted, much as mules and horses are uncounted

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. Southerners, however, well aware of the high proportion of slaves to the total population in their states, wanted them counted as whole persons despite their legal status. The three-fifths number was a ratio used by the Congress in contemporary legislation and was agreed upon with little debate.

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n Article 1, Section 9, Congress is limited, expressly, from prohibiting the "Importation" of slaves, before 1808.

slide16

The slave trade was a bone of contention for many, with some who supported slavery abhorring the slave trade.

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The 1808 date, a compromise of 20 years, allowed the slave trade to continue, but placed a date-certain on its survival. Congress eventually passed a law outlawing the slave trade that became effective on January 1, 1808.

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The Missouri Compromise of 1820

  • Created using Tom Snyder\'s Mapmaker\'s Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.
slide19

This compromise was another way the South and the North argued over slavery. The Compromise of 1820 required that all free states and slave states were to be equal.

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There was a balance of free and slave states, there were eleven each. The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state.

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The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state. This would make a big deal because this would make the balance uneven, and if this happened it would not be approved.

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That\'s not the last of hope for the South because the state of Maine also wanted to join the North and become a free state.

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The U. S. Congress decided to make Maine a free state because it didn\'t have any slaves in the state and Missouri did. They had about 10,000 slaves already in it, and the South didn\'t want to free all those slaves. Missouri then stayed a slave state.

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The Compromise of 1850

  • Another 30 years past and the North and South made and even bigger compromise. This compromise was called the Compromise of 1850. This compromise would try to settle the slavery question once and for all by making the North and South happy. The compromise allowed the slaves to work for the South, but it did not allow the slave trade to continue in Washington D.C.                 
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Created using Tom Snyder\'s Mapmaker\'s Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.

  • The state of California was made a free state by the U.S. Congress, but if the balance of free and slave states were to be broken it would not be allowed (like in the Missouri Compromise of 1820.) There just had to be another discussion about the state of Texas it wanted to own the territory of New Mexico.
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The compromise would give Texas an amount of ten million dollars to give up it\'s claims of New Mexico\'s territory. This would provide much of the needed money to pay for Texas\'s debts. After planning they decided to make the Texas boundary as it is to day.

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The Compromise of 1850 made an even stricter law which was the Fugitive Slave Act, the North just had to stop this act too. The Fugitive Slave Act made the North return the slaves back to their rightful owners that had escaped from the Underground Railroad.

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This railroad was for slaves that escaped from their owners and who had gone to the free states of the north or parts of Canada.

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The compromise was successful by keeping the nation united. This was only temporary until more further on when the South wanted to separate from the North.

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The South wanted to just take the slaves back, but they had to show evidence to the U.S. Congress to prove they were their rightful owners. If they had no evidence the slaves would be free and would not go back and work for the South on the plantations.

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Stephen A. Douglas- longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.

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Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.

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This Kansas-Nebraska Act ran into the problem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska

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The Kansas-Nebraska act wrecked two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 which the act repealed; and the Compromise of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly.

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The DemocraticParty was shattered by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

  • The Republican Party was formed in the Mid-West and it had moral protests against the gains of slavery.
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It included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Southerners hated the Republican Party.

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Most of the people who came into Kansas were just westward-moving pioneers. A minority of the people moving to Kansas was financed by groups of northern abolitionists who wanted to see Kansas a free state

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. The New England Emigrant Aid Company was one of these groups.

  • In 1855, the day that the first territorial legislatures were to be elected, many pro-slavery people came in from slave- state Missouri to vote, enacting pro-slavery officials.
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The slavery supporters set up their own government at Shawnee Mission. The free-soilers then set up their own government in Topeka, giving the Kansas territory two governments. (Kansas and Nebraska territories were to have popular sovereignty in choosing slavery according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act

slide41

Dread Scott, a slave who had lived with his master (residence in Missouri) for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil.

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The Supreme Court ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.

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The Fifth Amendment forbade Congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. The Court went further and stated that the Missouri Compromise wasunconstitutional and that Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, no matter what the territorial legislatures themselves wanted.

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This victory delighted Southerners, while it infuriated Northerners and supporters of popular sovereignty.

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The Emancipation Proclamation called for the freeing of all slaves in Confederate territory, except in locations where the Union had mostly regained control

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. Lincoln did not include the freeing of slaves in the Border States for fear that they, too, would secede.

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The proclamation fundamentally changed the nature of the war because it effectively removed any chance of a negotiated settlement between the North and the South.

  • .
slide48

The Emancipation Proclamation caused an outcry to rise from the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion.

  • The North now had a much stronger moral cause. It had to preserve the Union and free the slaves
slide49

The Black Codes was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865.

  • The Black Codes aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force.
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Blacks were forced to continue to work the plantations after their emancipation due to the system of "sharecropping." Plantation owners would rent out pieces of their land to blacks and make the cost of rent higher than the return the land produced.

slide51

The renters of the land were bound by contract to continue to work the land until debts were repaid to the plantation owner. Unable to repay the debts, blacks began to "jump" their contracts.

slide52

The codes imposed harsh penalties on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, some of which usually forced the blacks to work for the same employer for one year. The codes also sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations. The codes forbade a black to serve on a jury or to vote.

slide53

The Black Codes mocked the idea of freedom and imposed terrible hardships on the blacks who were struggling against mistreatment and poverty to make their way as free people.

  • The Republicans were strongly opposed to the Black Codes.
slide54

The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

slide55

Formally abolishing slavery in the United States, the 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.

slide56

The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed

slide57

. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”.

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By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment

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The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude

slide60

." Although ratified on February 3, 1870, the promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century.

slide61

Through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests and other means, Southern states were able to effectively disenfranchise African Americans.

slide62

It would take the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

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Civil Rights

Segregation was policy of the United States

civil rights 1896 1955
Civil Rights 1896-1955

Separate but equal

Jim Crow Laws

Voting restricted

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Civil Rights 1896-1955

Poll Taxes

Literacy tests

Voting became all white

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

What would allow segregation to be the law of the land?

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Supreme Court Case

Plessy v Ferguson

1896

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Segregation was lawful as long as white and black facilities were equal

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Was formed in 1909

National Urban

League 1910

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Taft believed blacks and whites could never live together and his solution was for blacks to leave country

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Wilson did nothing to help blacks

Wilson ordered blacks working for federal government separated

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Blacks fought bravely in World War I

Treated better in Europe than at home

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Returned home and found nothing changed still a segregated America

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Depression hit blacks harder than whites

Up to 60% were unemployed

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Roosevelt did more for equality in employment than any other president before him

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

However no legislation was passed by Roosevelt during his terms as President

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

World War II

Blacks still did not get the best jobs

Would only work as janitors

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Executive order 8802

Ended temporally discrimination in war industries

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Military units were still segregated

Tuskegee Airman

Black unit of flyers

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Never lost a plane they were escorting into battle

Still could not eat or live with white pilots

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Truman’s Fair Deal

Proposed legislation for Civil Rights

None were passed by Congress

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Truman did speak out against bigotry

Criticize violence against blacks

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

1948 Truman desegregated the Military

Formal recognition

Of blacks contributions to victories in WWI and WWII

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CIVIL RIGHTS

CIVIL RIGHTS

1954 seperate but equal still dominated civil rights in United States

1954 four cases were combined into one and sent to Supreme Court

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Brown V Topeka Board of Education

Chief Justice Vinson at first was presiding over case

He died

Eisenhower appointed

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Earl Warren former Governor of California

Conservative

Postponed case for a year

Knew this was a monumental case

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Thurgood Marshall attorney for NAACP

Presented case for plaintiff

Court ruled that separate but equal was unconstitutional

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Overturned Plessy v Ferguson

Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote

“ separate but equal has no place in public education separate facilities are inherently unequal”

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Decision made but problem was how it was to implemented

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Understanding the climate in the south write a short paragraph on what you think the south’s reaction to this decision was and what action may have been taken

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

“Clear abuse of Federal Power violation of states rights”

Increase of violence against African Americans

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Slow or disregarding of implementation of decision in south

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Little Rock Arkansas

9 African American students attempted to enter an all white high school

civil rights the resistance
Civil Rights The Resistance

Little Rock Arkansas

City accepted the ruling

Schools planned for desegregation

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Governor of state refused to allow them to enter

Sent National Guard to stop the students

New media

Brought news into living rooms

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Civil Rights The Beginning

President Eisenhower at first was reluctant to get government involved

Little Rock Changed that idea

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Forced Eisenhower to send federal troops and activated National Guard

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Civil Rights The Resistance

However the Governor of Arkansas

Orval Faubus

Ordered National guard to turn away African American students Little Rock 9

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Civil Rights The Beginning

Again television was important

Sent the Army to escort students to school

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Civil Rights The Response

Governor Faubus in response

Closed the High School rather than desegregate

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Not many victories in the Eisenhower era for civil rights Brown v. Topeka

Boycott of buses

The significance was the advancement may have been small

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Civil Rights The Resistance

First ruling was not enough in Brown v Topeka

In a second ruling Brown II

Ordered integration with

“all deliberate speed”

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Montgomery Alabama

Segregated bus lines African Americans had to sit in the back of the bus

Rosa Parks

December 1, 1955

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Civil Rights The Beginning

She refused

December 1, 1955

Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up

She was arrested

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Civil Rights The Beginning

Rosa parks was an officer of the local NAACP

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Refused to give up seat to a white man

Arrested became a national cause

She was not the only or the first to challenge segregation

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

She worked for the NAACP and was a well respected in the community

Turned to Dr. Martin Luther King

Passive resistance

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Civil Rights 1896-1973

Embraced Gandhi

African Americans boycotted the bus company

Car pooled and walked to work

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Civil Rights The Beginning

26 year old minister was elected chairman of the boycott

Dr. Martin Luther King

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Civil Rights The Beginning

Buses were boycotted

Instead car pools walking long distance

381 days long

1956 Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

SCLC

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Dr. King Leader

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

Dr. King called the non violent movement

“Soul Force”

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

4 principles of the Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

1. Teachings of Jesus

Love ones enemy

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

2. Henry David Thoreau

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

Civil Disobedience

Refusal to obey an unjust law

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

3. A. Phillip Randolph

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Civil Rights Rise of the Movement

Organization of mass Demonstrations

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

In early 1960

4 black students

Greensboro North Carolina

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Sat down knowing they would not be served

Faced arrest

Still they sat

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

4 the first day

23 the next day

66 came the 3rd day

By end of week 1,000 students participated

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Hostile crowds surrounded the sit ins

Students formed

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

SNCC

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Freedom Riders

1961

Campaigned in busses to

End segregation on all transportation

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

White mobs gathered and dragged them from busses

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Despite violence these protests were successful

The Supreme Court ended segregation in all Public travel accommodations

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Four Sources of Mass Movement

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

He championed James Meredith getting into University of Mississippi

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Governor Ross Barnett refused to obey the order

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Kennedy sent in Federal Marshals

1st night 2 died 375 injured during riots

Federal marshals stayed on campus until Meredith graduated

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Medgar Evers was shot and killed in his driveway

It took over 30 years for a conviction in the case

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Children\'s March

Adults would lose their jobs

Fire hoses and dogs were sent out to attack children

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Sacrifices were successful

Birmingham began to desegregate

Events in Birmingham forced Kennedy to do something

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Proposed a strong Civil Rights Bill

Passed in Johnson Administration

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

March On Washington

250,000 people

60,000 whites joined in a march to Pass the Civil Rights Bill

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Two weeks after I have a dream speech

4 young girls were killed ina firebombing of a church

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Civil Rights The Beginning

dynamite was thrown into a Baptist Church killing 4 young girls

Court orders could not alone end the violence

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

On July 2, 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed

Prohibited discrimination because of

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Race, religion, national origin, and gender

Rights to enter parks libraries washrooms restaurants theaters and other accommodations

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

No voting rights yet

Freedom Summer

College students mostly white 1/3 female

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Went to Mississippi to help register voters

3 men disappeared 2 white and one black

found murdered

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Local Klan and local police accused of killings

Convicted after federal investigation

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Selma March

50 mile voting march

At night marchers were beating up

Caught on TV

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Response to the violence was more people joined march

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Voting Act of 1965

Eliminated the literacy test

Eliminated poll tax

10% negroes voted in 1964 60% in 1968

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Violence erupted in Northern cities

Watts riots

Newark

New York

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Why riots

Needed economic help

Job opportunities

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Malcolm X

Started as a small time criminal

Spent time in jail

Found the Nation of Islam

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Ballots or bullets

Pilgrimage to Mecca

Changed his attitude towards whites

No longer called for separate races

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

“Well if we don’t use the ballot we going to be forced to use bullets so let us try the ballot”

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Split with Black Muslims

February 21, 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

April 3, 1968

On a Memphis motel balcony

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Rioting followed

James Earl Ray was arrested and charged with the murder

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Ended discrimination in housing

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Assassinations in 1960’s

JFK

Malcolm X

Martin Luther King Jr

RFK

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Turbulent decade

Progress made at great expense

4 major leaders killed

War in foreign country

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Civil Rights The Struggle for Freedom

Riots and Civil unrest

Country was at a crossroads

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