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Civil Rights. Civil Rights. When Did segergation start?. Civil Rights. Indentured Servants Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies. Civil Rights. There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation. Civil Rights. Constitutional Convention. Civil Rights.

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Civil rights1
Civil Rights

  • When Did segergation start?


Civil rights2
Civil Rights

  • Indentured Servants

  • Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies


Civil rights3
Civil Rights

  • There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation


Civil rights4
Civil Rights

  • Constitutional Convention


Civil rights5
Civil Rights

  • John Jay, great supporter of the Constitution after its creation and an author of The Federalist wrote in 1786, "It is much to be wished that slavery may be abolished. The honour of the States, as well as justice and humanity, in my opinion, loudly call upon them to emancipate these unhappy people. To contend for our own liberty, and to deny that blessing to others, involves an inconsistency not to be excused."


Civil rights6
Civil Rights

  • Patrick Henry, the great Virginian patriot, was outspoken on the issue, despite his citizenship in a slave state. In 1773, he wrote, "I believe a time will come when an opportunity will be offered to abolish this lamentable evil. Everything we do is to improve it, if it happens in our day; if not, let us transmit to our descendants, together with our slaves, a pity for their unhappy lot and an abhorrence of slavery."


Civil rights7
Civil Rights

  • The Constitution has often been called a living tribute to the art of compromise. In the slavery question, this can be seen most clearly. The Convention had representatives from every corner of the United States, including, of course, the South, where slavery was most pronounced. Slavery,





  • Slavery is seen in the Constitution in a few key places. The first is in the Enumeration Clause, where representatives are apportioned. Each state is given a number of representatives based on its population - in that population, slaves, called "other persons," are counted as three-fifths of a whole person.







  • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 trade to continue, but placed a date-certain on its survival. Congress eventually passed a law outlawing the slave trade that became effective on January 1, 1808.

  • Created using Tom Snyder's Mapmaker's Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.







  • The Compromise of 1850 because it didn't have any slaves in the state and Missouri did. They had about 10,000 slaves already in it, and the South didn't want to free all those slaves. Missouri then stayed a slave state.

  • Another 30 years past and the North and South made and even bigger compromise. This compromise was called the Compromise of 1850. This compromise would try to settle the slavery question once and for all by making the North and South happy. The compromise allowed the slaves to work for the South, but it did not allow the slave trade to continue in Washington D.C.                 


  • Created using Tom Snyder's Mapmaker's Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.

  • The state of California was made a free state by the U.S. Congress, but if the balance of free and slave states were to be broken it would not be allowed (like in the Missouri Compromise of 1820.) There just had to be another discussion about the state of Texas it wanted to own the territory of New Mexico.







  • Stephen A. Douglas to show evidence to the U.S. Congress to prove they were their rightful owners. If they had no evidence the slaves would be free and would not go back and work for the South on the plantations. - longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.



  • This sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.Kansas-Nebraska Act ran into the problem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska


  • The Kansas-Nebraska act sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.wrecked two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 which the act repealed; and the Compromise of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly.


  • The sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.DemocraticParty was shattered by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

  • The Republican Party was formed in the Mid-West and it had moral protests against the gains of slavery.




  • . The westward-moving pioneers. A minority of the people moving to Kansas was financed by groups of northern abolitionists who wanted to see Kansas a free New England Emigrant Aid Company was one of these groups.

  • In 1855, the day that the first territorial legislatures were to be elected, many pro-slavery people came in from slave- state Missouri to vote, enacting pro-slavery officials.


  • The slavery supporters set up their own government at Shawnee Mission. The free-soilers then set up their own government in Topeka, giving the Kansas territory two governments. (Kansas and Nebraska territories were to have popular sovereignty in choosing slavery according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act


  • Dread Scott Shawnee Mission. The free-, a slave who had lived with his master (residence in Missouri) for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil.



  • The property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. Fifth Amendment forbade Congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. The Court went further and stated that the Missouri Compromise wasunconstitutional and that Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, no matter what the territorial legislatures themselves wanted.







  • The the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion.Black Codes was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865.

  • The Black Codes aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force.




  • The codes imposed harsh penalties on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts, some of which usually forced the blacks to work for the same employer for one year. The codes also sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations. The codes forbade a black to serve on a jury or to vote.



  • The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."



  • The 14th Amendment Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed




  • The 15th Amendment Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude





Civil rights8
Civil before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteRights

Segregation was policy of the United States


Civil rights 1896 1955
Civil Rights 1896-1955 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Separate but equal

Jim Crow Laws

Voting restricted


Civil rights 1896 19551
Civil Rights 1896-1955 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Poll Taxes

Literacy tests

Voting became all white


Civil rights 1896 19552
Civil Rights 1896-1955 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


Civil rights 1896 1973
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


Civil rights 1896 19731
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

What would allow segregation to be the law of the land?


Civil rights 1896 19732
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Supreme Court Case

Plessy v Ferguson

1896


Civil rights 1896 19733
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Segregation was lawful as long as white and black facilities were equal


Civil rights 1896 19734
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

W E B Du Bois


Civil rights 1896 19735
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People


Civil rights 1896 19736
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Was formed in 1909

National Urban

League 1910


Civil rights 1896 19737
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Taft believed blacks and whites could never live together and his solution was for blacks to leave country


Civil rights 1896 19738
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Wilson did nothing to help blacks

Wilson ordered blacks working for federal government separated


Civil rights 1896 19739
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Blacks fought bravely in World War I

Treated better in Europe than at home


Civil rights 1896 197310
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Returned home and found nothing changed still a segregated America


Civil rights 1896 197311
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Depression hit blacks harder than whites

Up to 60% were unemployed


Civil rights 1896 197312
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Roosevelt did more for equality in employment than any other president before him


Civil rights 1896 197313
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


Civil rights 1896 197314
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

However no legislation was passed by Roosevelt during his terms as President


Civil rights 1896 197315
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

World War II

Blacks still did not get the best jobs

Would only work as janitors


Civil rights 1896 197316
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Executive order 8802

Ended temporally discrimination in war industries


Civil rights 1896 197317
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Military units were still segregated

Tuskegee Airman

Black unit of flyers


Civil rights 1896 197318
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Never lost a plane they were escorting into battle

Still could not eat or live with white pilots


Civil rights 1896 197319
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Truman’s Fair Deal

Proposed legislation for Civil Rights

None were passed by Congress


Civil rights 1896 197320
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Truman did speak out against bigotry

Criticize violence against blacks


Civil rights 1896 197321
Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

1948 Truman desegregated the Military

Formal recognition

Of blacks contributions to victories in WWI and WWII


Civil rights9

CIVIL RIGHTS before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

CIVIL RIGHTS

1954 seperate but equal still dominated civil rights in United States

1954 four cases were combined into one and sent to Supreme Court


Civil rights 1896 197322

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Brown V Topeka Board of Education

Chief Justice Vinson at first was presiding over case

He died

Eisenhower appointed


Civil rights 1896 197323

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Earl Warren former Governor of California

Conservative

Postponed case for a year

Knew this was a monumental case


Civil rights 1896 197324

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Thurgood Marshall attorney for NAACP

Presented case for plaintiff

Court ruled that separate but equal was unconstitutional


Civil rights 1896 197325

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Overturned Plessy v Ferguson

Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote

“ separate but equal has no place in public education separate facilities are inherently unequal”


Civil rights 1896 197326

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Decision made but problem was how it was to implemented


Civil rights 1896 197327

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Understanding the climate in the south write a short paragraph on what you think the south’s reaction to this decision was and what action may have been taken


Civil rights 1896 197328

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

“Clear abuse of Federal Power violation of states rights”

Increase of violence against African Americans


Civil rights 1896 197329

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Slow or disregarding of implementation of decision in south


Civil rights 1896 197330

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Little Rock Arkansas

9 African American students attempted to enter an all white high school


Civil rights the resistance
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Resistance

Little Rock Arkansas

City accepted the ruling

Schools planned for desegregation


Civil rights 1896 197331

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Governor of state refused to allow them to enter

Sent National Guard to stop the students

New media

Brought news into living rooms


Civil rights the beginning
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

President Eisenhower at first was reluctant to get government involved

Little Rock Changed that idea


Civil rights 1896 197332

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Forced Eisenhower to send federal troops and activated National Guard


Civil rights the resistance1
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Resistance

However the Governor of Arkansas

Orval Faubus

Ordered National guard to turn away African American students Little Rock 9


Civil rights the beginning1
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

Again television was important

Sent the Army to escort students to school


Civil rights the response
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Response

Governor Faubus in response

Closed the High School rather than desegregate


Civil rights 1896 197333

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Not many victories in the Eisenhower era for civil rights Brown v. Topeka

Boycott of buses

The significance was the advancement may have been small


Civil rights the resistance2
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Resistance

First ruling was not enough in Brown v Topeka

In a second ruling Brown II

Ordered integration with

“all deliberate speed”


  • CIVIL RIGHTS before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • SEPARATE BUT EQUAL before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • NAACP before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • Plessey v Ferguson before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • Tuskegee Airman before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


Civil rights 1896 197334

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Montgomery Alabama

Segregated bus lines African Americans had to sit in the back of the bus

Rosa Parks

December 1, 1955


Civil rights the beginning2
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

She refused

December 1, 1955

Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up

She was arrested


Civil rights the beginning3
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

Rosa parks was an officer of the local NAACP


Civil rights 1896 197335

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Refused to give up seat to a white man

Arrested became a national cause

She was not the only or the first to challenge segregation


Civil rights 1896 197336

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

She worked for the NAACP and was a well respected in the community

Turned to Dr. Martin Luther King

Passive resistance


Civil rights 1896 197337

Civil Rights 1896-1973 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote

Embraced Gandhi

African Americans boycotted the bus company

Car pooled and walked to work


Civil rights the beginning4
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

26 year old minister was elected chairman of the boycott

Dr. Martin Luther King


Civil rights the beginning5
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

Buses were boycotted

Instead car pools walking long distance

381 days long

1956 Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation


Civil rights rise of the movement
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteRise of the Movement

SCLC

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Dr. King Leader


Civil rights rise of the movement1
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

Dr. King called the non violent movement

“Soul Force”


Civil rights rise of the movement2
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

4 principles of the Civil Rights Movement


Civil rights rise of the movement3
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

1. Teachings of Jesus

Love ones enemy


Civil rights rise of the movement4
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

2. Henry David Thoreau


Civil rights rise of the movement5
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

Civil Disobedience

Refusal to obey an unjust law


Civil rights rise of the movement6
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

3. A. Phillip Randolph


Civil rights rise of the movement7
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

Organization of mass Demonstrations


Civil rights rise of the movement8
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote Rise of the Movement

4. Gandhi


Civil rights the struggle for freedom
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Lunch Counter sit ins


Civil rights the struggle for freedom1
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

In early 1960

4 black students

Greensboro North Carolina


Civil rights the struggle for freedom2
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Woolworths lunch counter


Civil rights the struggle for freedom3
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Sat down knowing they would not be served

Faced arrest

Still they sat


Civil rights the struggle for freedom4
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

4 the first day

23 the next day

66 came the 3rd day

By end of week 1,000 students participated


Civil rights the struggle for freedom5
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Hostile crowds surrounded the sit ins

Students formed


Civil rights the struggle for freedom6
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

SNCC


  • Bus Boycott before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • Brown v Topeka before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


  • Rosa Parks before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote




Civil rights the struggle for freedom7
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Freedom Riders

1961

Campaigned in busses to

End segregation on all transportation


Civil rights the struggle for freedom8
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom9
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

White mobs gathered and dragged them from busses


Civil rights the struggle for freedom10
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Despite violence these protests were successful

The Supreme Court ended segregation in all Public travel accommodations


Civil rights the struggle for freedom11
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Four Sources of Mass Movement


Civil rights the struggle for freedom12
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

1. Black Urbanization


Civil rights the struggle for freedom13
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

2. Religious Faith


Civil rights the struggle for freedom14
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

3. Constitutional Rights


Civil rights the struggle for freedom15
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

4. Media Coverage


Civil rights the struggle for freedom16
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Medgar Evers


Civil rights the struggle for freedom17
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

He championed James Meredith getting into University of Mississippi


Civil rights the struggle for freedom18
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom19
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

James Meredith today


Civil rights the struggle for freedom20
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Governor Ross Barnett refused to obey the order


Civil rights the struggle for freedom21
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Kennedy sent in Federal Marshals

1st night 2 died 375 injured during riots

Federal marshals stayed on campus until Meredith graduated


Civil rights the struggle for freedom22
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Medgar Evers was shot and killed in his driveway

It took over 30 years for a conviction in the case


Civil rights the struggle for freedom23
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Birmingham

Bull Conner


Civil rights the struggle for freedom24
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Children's March

Adults would lose their jobs

Fire hoses and dogs were sent out to attack children


Civil rights the struggle for freedom25
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom26
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom27
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Sacrifices were successful

Birmingham began to desegregate

Events in Birmingham forced Kennedy to do something


Civil rights the struggle for freedom28
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Proposed a strong Civil Rights Bill

Passed in Johnson Administration


Civil rights the struggle for freedom29
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

March On Washington

250,000 people

60,000 whites joined in a march to Pass the Civil Rights Bill


Civil rights the struggle for freedom30
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Two weeks after I have a dream speech

4 young girls were killed ina firebombing of a church


Civil rights the beginning6
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to voteThe Beginning

dynamite was thrown into a Baptist Church killing 4 young girls

Court orders could not alone end the violence


  • Bull Connor before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote


Civil rights the struggle for freedom31
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

On July 2, 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed

Prohibited discrimination because of


Civil rights the struggle for freedom32
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Race, religion, national origin, and gender

Rights to enter parks libraries washrooms restaurants theaters and other accommodations


Civil rights the struggle for freedom33
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

No voting rights yet

Freedom Summer

College students mostly white 1/3 female


Civil rights the struggle for freedom34
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Went to Mississippi to help register voters

3 men disappeared 2 white and one black

found murdered


Civil rights the struggle for freedom35
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Local Klan and local police accused of killings

Convicted after federal investigation


Civil rights the struggle for freedom36
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Selma March

50 mile voting march

At night marchers were beating up

Caught on TV


Civil rights the struggle for freedom37
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Response to the violence was more people joined march


Civil rights the struggle for freedom38
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Voting Act of 1965

Eliminated the literacy test

Eliminated poll tax

10% negroes voted in 1964 60% in 1968


Civil rights the struggle for freedom39
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Violence erupted in Northern cities

Watts riots

Newark

New York


Civil rights the struggle for freedom40
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Why riots

Needed economic help

Job opportunities


Civil rights the struggle for freedom41
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Malcolm X

Started as a small time criminal

Spent time in jail

Found the Nation of Islam


Civil rights the struggle for freedom42
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Ballots or bullets

Pilgrimage to Mecca

Changed his attitude towards whites

No longer called for separate races


Civil rights the struggle for freedom43
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

“Well if we don’t use the ballot we going to be forced to use bullets so let us try the ballot”


Civil rights the struggle for freedom44
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Split with Black Muslims

February 21, 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated


Civil rights the struggle for freedom45
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom46
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

April 3, 1968

On a Memphis motel balcony

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated


Civil rights the struggle for freedom47
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom48
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Rioting followed

James Earl Ray was arrested and charged with the murder


Civil rights the struggle for freedom49
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom50
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom


Civil rights the struggle for freedom51
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Ended discrimination in housing


Civil rights the struggle for freedom52
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Assassinations in 1960’s

JFK

Malcolm X

Martin Luther King Jr

RFK


Civil rights the struggle for freedom53
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Turbulent decade

Progress made at great expense

4 major leaders killed

War in foreign country


Civil rights the struggle for freedom54
Civil Rights before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote The Struggle for Freedom

Riots and Civil unrest

Country was at a crossroads


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