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CS 495 : Senior Seminar Pr. Richard Steflik Group 4 October 28 th , 2004. PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES. Privacy and Civil Liberties Featured Topics and Speakers:. Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection by Joshua Shapiro

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CS 495: Senior SeminarPr. Richard SteflikGroup 4October 28th, 2004

PRIVACY AND

CIVIL LIBERTIES


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Privacy and Civil LibertiesFeatured Topics and Speakers:

  • Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection by Joshua Shapiro

  • Privacy Implications of Massive Database systems

    by Shawn Spielberg

  • Technological strategies for Privacy Protection by Joshua Spindel

  • Freedom of Expression in Cyberspace by Jingbo Tan

  • International Implications by Marc Van Gelder

  • Intercultural Implications by Larisse Voufo

  • Privacy in the Workplace by Brian Wolf


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Privacy and Civil LibertiesEthical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionJoshua Shapiro


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhy should you be concerned about privacy protection?

-It is a fundamental right guaranteed to you

-It is an ever growing concern

-The more you know about it, the more security measures you can take


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhere did it all begin?

- One Man

-      One Vision

 -      One Norbert Weiner


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionModern privacy issues:

-Cookies

-Spyware

-Carnivore


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionLaws:

-Electronic Computer Privacy Act (ECPA)

-Communications Decency Act (CDA)


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionPeople fighting for you:

-EFF

-ACLU


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhat can you, the users do?

-Encryption

-Up to date software patches

-Voice your opinion to elected officials


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionThank you!


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Privacy and Civil Liberties Privacy Implications of Massive Database SystemsShawn Spielberg


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Privacy and Civil Liberties Technological strategies for Privacy ProtectionJoshua Spindel


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy ProtectionDiscussion

  • Why are people worried about privacy protection?

  • Technological laws and legislations.

  • Using Technology to create privacy and protection.

  • Where do we go from here?


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Why are people worried about privacy protection? (1)

  • Privacy and the protection of Internet users information from third-party transactions and organized crime has become a reality that we can no longer avoid and no longer be passive about.

  • The Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner states “that privacy is a major issue for net users” (http://www.privacy.gov.au/internet/web/index__print.html).

  • Consumers don’t want to conform to practices that will help protect themselves.

Worried Privacy Protect 1 of 2


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Why are people worried about privacy protection? (2)

  • Ventana Resarch, a company that researches technological privacy issues believes “conditions are ripe for an electronic privacy revolution”(http://www.intelligentcrm.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18201265).

  • Information being exploited: spam, misuse of social security numbers, disclosure of medical information, employment history, purchase behavior, and more.

Worried Privacy Protect 2 of 2


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Technological Laws and legislations(1)

  • Because of events like September 11th, 2001 and terrorist movements throughout the world, government invasion of civil liberties seem to be on the rise.

  • New Homeland Security

    • combat cyber threats, the bill includes $67 million -- a $2.1 million increase over last year -- to expand activities at Homeland Security's cyber-security division.

Technological laws 1 of 1


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Technological Laws and legislations(2)

  • New USA Patriot Act of 2001 effects internet

    • enhanced taping/wiring, snooping, packet sniffing

  • What does this mean to us?

    • This could lead to “national identification system and Federal agency rights to access both public and commercial databases and intercept electronic communications for data mining projects”. (http://www.intelligentcrm.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18201265)

Technological laws 1 of 1


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection.

  • Pop-ups

    - Advertisements ex: Flowers

    -Jobs: Pyramid scams

    -Politics ex: Bush/Kerry, War

    -Health ex: Energy Pills, Fat Loss

    -Adult Content

    -Get Rich Quick

  • E-mail Spam

    -Built in spam protection such as Web Based services such as

    • http://mail.yahoo.com/

    • http://gmail.com/

      -Third party software ex: Norton, CoffeCup, etc…

Using Technology 1 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection

HistoryKill 2002 Popup killer

“The #1 Privacy Tool for the Internet!”

Using Technology 2 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection

CoffeeCup Spam Blocker 3.0 – Shareware

Using Technology 3 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection.

  • Firewall

    • A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.

    • Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both.

    • All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

    • Proxy Server

      • Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.

Using Technology 4 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection

Firewall

Using Technology 5 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection.

  • Let’s talk about Encryption

    -The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.

    -There are two main types of encryption: asymmetric encryption (also called public-key encryption) and symmetric encryption.

  • Why use encryption ?

    -Credit card #, social security, birthdates, confidential documents, medical records, financial statements.

Using Technology 6 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection

Basic Encryption Process

Using Technology 7 of 7


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Where do we go from here?

  • The passing of more legislative laws protecting citizens.

  • Advancement of Third-party software and the continued support for its purpose.

  • Better education about internet privacy and protection. Ex: Government websites, free information packets for keeping yourself safe and secure while online.

Where 1 of 1


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Privacy and Civil Liberties Freedom of Expression in CyberspaceJingbo Tan


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Privacy and Civil Liberties International ImplicationsMarc Van Gelder


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Privacy and Civil Liberties Intercultural ImplicationsLarisse Voufo


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural Implications

I - Cultures are Different from One to Another

II - How Cultural Differences affect our Privacy and Civil Liberties


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsBrief tour to History:

1679: “Habeas Corpus” or Bill of Rights (Great Britain)

1776:U.S. Declaration of Independence

1789: “Declaration of the right of Man” (France)

Middle and Late 19th Century: Succession of Human Rights Movements

1964:Civil rights Act

1974:Privacy Act

1988:Civil Liberties Act

Various Other Laws, regarding Privacy and Civil Liberties were established within many other cultures


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsCultural Factors:

-Conceptions of Privacy and Civil Liberties

Proxemics

-Special physical and Structural traits


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsProxemics:

=Study of one’s perception and use of space

Different conceptions of personal space

Difference in amount of trust we put in others to handle personal info

Difference in how we perceive what information should be publicly available


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsGraph:

Data gotten from: Table1 – Aggregate data from the study for US, UK and EU audiences.

Sarah Gordon. “Privacy: A Study of Attitudes and Behaviors in US, UK and EU Information Security Professional”. http://securityresponse.symantec.com/avcenter/reference/privacy.attitudes.behaviors.pdf


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSpecial Traits:

-Physical Appearance

-Language

-Tradition

-Ideology

-Most importantly, in this case, Names

NamingConvention

Name Structures

Critical Information: titles, gender, marital status,…

Variations: nicknames, alternate spellings, …

Alphabet


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsEffects of Cultural Factors on the Society:

A Most Practical Example:

Security Devices - fabrication and usage encouraged by the Government in order to fight against terrorism

-“Watch lists”

-Surveillance Cameras

with Face Recognition Systems

-Control of exchange of information over the internet


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“Nice Guy” or “Guy Nice”

???

I know, By the Law of Commutativity, they are both equivalent…

So, I’ll just pick any one of them!!!

If only somebody could tell me what this person’s name really is !

DataBase Guy

Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFact:

Security Devices are Made and Used within an Unawareness of Cultural Differences

Problems during the Devices’ Input and Output


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsDuring the Input:

-Human Error:

While writing a name down on a piece of paper or

While entering a name on the database

-Quality of Input Device

Example: Camera’s lighting – too dark or too light

During the Output:

-False Positives

Example:Soundex, Face Recognition, …


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSoundex:

=Technique developed in the 1990s and that the science of understanding and automating the correct handling of personal names continues to rely on.

Key-based algorithm

Ignores common personal name variations based on cultures, language, spelling variations and diminutives

Fails to return matches that exists in databases.

returns a bulk of unrelated false positives

Proven Ineffective time and again


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFace Recognition Systems:

=One of the tools used in Biometrics to capture “signatures” of faces on high-resolution cameras and compare them with mug shots in Police Databases

Limited Reliability

Ineffective and error-ridden

Accurate only 54% of the time


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsImpact in Society:

Case: Anthony D. Romero

“Antonio Romero is what my mother calls me. Antonio Romero is also how I am known to many of my friends and family members. Unfortunately, the name Antonio Romero also Appears on a U.S. Treasury Department list titled ‘Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons.’ The government provides only name, some known aliases and a date of birth for Antonio Romero. No Further Attempt is made at delineating one Antonio Romero from the next.”

- Anthony D. Romero, “You, Too, Could Be A Suspected Terrorist”, American Civil Liberty Union. http://www.zulunation.com/newletter_info.html

 Impossibility to distinguish an honest citizen from a terrorist

Increase risk of working with people related to criminal and terrorist activities


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSolution: Need of Cultural Awareness

Usage of Empirically driven knowledge about names

Culturally efficient:

- Reduction of False Positives

-Ensure an accurate evaluation of all name types

- Usage of statistics:

Determines the probable culture and gender of a name, variant spellings, and the recognition of matches of names within a database, considering all character, cultural and phonetic variations possible.


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsAnother Problem:

Domination of computing systems by English Speaking Cultures


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFuture: Two Alternatives

-Back to Human Rights Movements???

 “minority” linguistic cultures feeling annihilated by English speaking ones

-Notion of lingua franca

 Denise Oram and Mike Headon,

North East West Wales University, Wrexham, UK

 One Language for the “Computing World”

 Universalization of all cultures:

Arising of the “Computing culture”


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural Implications

--Thank You!!!


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Privacy and Civil Liberties Privacy in the WorkplaceBrian Wolf


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Privacy in the Workplace

  • Government Legislation

  • Employer vs. Employee

  • Psychological Effect

  • The Future


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Government Legislation

  • Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Actof 1968

    • Put regulations on the use of tapping into telephone conversations

  • Electronic Communication Privacy Act (ECPA) in 1986

    • extended coverage from just telephones to electronic communications, which includes computers


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Government Legislation Cont’d

  • ECPA Cont’d

    • provided criminal and civil penalties for unauthorized interception of private, electronic communication

    • provided stricter guidelines for obtaining the authorization to use a wiretap or pen register

  • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) - 2001


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Employer Vs. Employee

  • Numerous court cases involving E-mail messages over company systems

    • Bourke vs. Nissan (1993 – California)

    • Smyth vs. The Pillsbury Company (1996 – Pennsylvania)

    • McLaren vs. Microsoft (1999 – Texas)

  • Cases above ruled all in favor of the employer

    • “no reasonable expectation of privacy in their E-mail messages “

    • “does not recognize any right of privacy in the contents of electronic mail systems and storage that are provided to employees by the employer as part of the employment relationship”


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Employer Vs. Employee Cont’d

  • Carlus Haynes v. Office of the Attorney General Phill Kline (2003 – Kansas)

    • Ruled in favor of Haynes

    • Complications in privacy policy of office


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Psychological Effect

  • “Computers in Human Behavior” – Jeffrey Stanton (Ph. D), Amanda Julian

    • “You shouldn't let people guess what you expect from them… Get your employees aligned in their own minds with the goals of the organization”

    • Employee output decreases when suspected that their output is being gauged


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Psychological Effect Cont’d

  • “Effects of Computer Surveillance on Perceptions of Privacy and Procedural Justice” - Bradley Alge (2001)

    • Procedural Justice - “people's perceptions of the fairness of the policies and procedures used in making decisions”

    • Results found the more participation the employee had in the implementation of the privacy policy decreased invasion of privacy and increased procedural justice


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

The Future

  • More legislation

  • For Employees

    • Try to leave personal life out of business life

    • Know your employer’s privacy policy, even if you are given dedicated space for “private” use


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Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace

Thank you!

http://www.cartoonwork.com/archive/workplacecartoons/privacy.htm


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