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Understanding Concepts and the Conceptual Approach. Jean Foret Giddens, PhD APRN-BC, Associate Professor College of Nursing , University of New Mexico [email protected] Infusing Conceptual Learning Into the Classroom North Carolina Associate Degree Nursing Council

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Understanding concepts and the conceptual approach
Understanding Concepts and the Conceptual Approach

Jean Foret Giddens, PhD APRN-BC, Associate Professor

College of Nursing , University of New Mexico

[email protected]

Infusing Conceptual Learning Into the Classroom

North Carolina Associate Degree Nursing Council

Fall Conference October 23, 2007


Overview
Overview

  • Foundations in Concepts

  • Conceptual Approach in Nursing

  • Conceptual Teaching and Learning

  • Concept Based Curriculum



What is a concept1
What is a Concept?

  • A concept is an organizing principle or a unifying classification of information.

  • Concepts are “mental constructions representing categories of information that contain defining attributes” (Walker & Advant, 1988)

  • Humans begin conceptual thinking at an early age.


Defining attributes
Defining Attributes

  • These are the “rules” or “parameters” used to identify, define and recognize a concept.

  • These are important because these rules help all individuals or groups of individuals universally recognize the concept.


Example concepts as categories

What concepts do the shapes below represent?

What other concepts can you identify?

Example:Concepts as Categories


Example concepts as categories1
Example:Concepts as Categories


Concepts for nursing education
Concepts for Nursing Education

  • Clarity

  • Useful

  • What are the Concepts for Nursing Practice?

  • Concepts vs. Exemplars

  • Concepts vs. Medical Diagnoses


Concept definition and exemplars
Concept Definition and Exemplars

  • Concept: Intracranial Regulation

  • Definition:

    • Mechanisms that impact intracranial processing and function

  • Exemplars:

    • Traumatic brain injury

    • Seizures

    • Stroke


Concept development presentation
Concept Development & Presentation

  • Develop concepts according to template for consistency

    • Types of/Categories

    • Populations at risk/personal risk factors

    • Assessment

    • Nursing Care

      • Primary Prevention

      • Secondary Prevention

      • Collaborative Care

    • Interrelated Concepts



What is conceptual learning
What is Conceptual Learning?

  • Process by which students learn how to organize information in logical mental structures.

  • Focuses on organizing principles – the “cubby holes” in which the mind organizes facts into ideas.

  • The difference between concept and content focused learning is… “the difference between facts of the Alaska oil spill and an understanding of the importance of environmental sustainability”

    (Erickson, 1998 p. 50).


Promoting conceptual learning means
Promoting Conceptual Learning Means……

  • Focusing on big ideas – students anchor to specifics.

  • Fostering deep learning, and deep understanding through connections and reflection (as opposed to surface learning).

  • Developing student-centered learning with a purpose.


Teaching conceptually
Teaching Conceptually

Focus is on Concept

Exemplars provide content knowledge

Application of content to interrelated concepts

Application of other content to the concept


Concept: Oxygenation and possible exemplars

Pulmonary

Edema

Pnuemothorax

Anemia

PE

RDS

AMI

Pneumonia

COPD

Asthma

RSV

Oxygenation


Example 1 respiratory failure case study
Example #1: Respiratory FailureCase Study

Child – RF with Asthma

Adult – RF with COPD

Risk Factors

Clinical Onset

Presenting Clinical Manifestations

Collaborative Management

Outcome

Interrelated Concepts

Risk Factors

Clinical Onset

Presenting Clinical Manifestations

Collaborative Management

Outcome

Interrelated Concepts


Example 2 long term complications of dm

Hypertension

ASHD

Renal Failure

Diabetic Retinopathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Artery Disease

Example #2Long-term complications of DM

Students struggle to grasp the long-term complications associated with DM.

Tendency is to focus on each complication as separate entity

What underlying concept or concepts could explain this?


Example 3 skill acquisition securing an iv catheter
Example #3 Skill Acquisition: Securing an IV Catheter

What concept(s) apply?

After starting an IV, what steps are necessary to properly secure the IV?


Example 4 cause and effect model
Example #4Cause and Effect Model

Motion

Sensory Perceptual

Oxygenation

Perfusion

Elimination

Nutrition

Skin Integrity

Pain


Other teaching strategies
Other Teaching Strategies:

  • Experiential Learning

  • Games

  • Jigsaw

  • Role Play

  • Virtual Experiential Learning (Neighborhood)

  • Simulation Learning

  • Rounds

  • Concept Analysis

  • Case Writing


Clinical judgment model tanner 2006
Clinical Judgment Model (Tanner, 2006)

  • Linking to Nursing Research

    • Noticing

    • Interpreting

    • Responding

    • Reflecting


Final thoughts on conceptual learning
Final Thoughts on Conceptual Learning

  • A focus on concepts in itself does not guarantee conceptual learning.

  • Faculty must adopt activelearning strategies to enhance conceptual learning.

  • Ideally, concepts are woven through all courses and incorporated into clinical learning as well as didactic courses.


Benefits of conceptual learning
Benefits of Conceptual Learning

  • Content Management

  • Concepts addressed across disease categories and populations.

  • Fosters systematic observations about events or conditions that influence a problem.

  • Emphasis on interrelated concepts

  • Catalyst for challenging students to think at more advanced levels.

  • Meets the needs of diverse learners


Drawbacks
Drawbacks

  • It is different, thus faculty lack understanding

  • Faculty resistant to changes

  • Requires a different level of organization

  • Lack of literature detailing steps

  • What about NCLEX?


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