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The cardiovascular system: blood. Chapter 11: Hematology. The functions of blood. Transportation : of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes. Regulation : of pH , blood clotting, body temperature, and renal control .

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The cardiovascular system blood

The cardiovascular system: blood

Chapter 11: Hematology

The functions of blood
The functions of blood

  • Transportation: of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes.

  • Regulation: of

    • pH,

    • blood clotting,

    • body temperature, and

    • renal control.

  • Protection: against harmful toxins and pathogens

Anatomy of blood
Anatomy of blood

  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue that contains:

    • Plasma (55%)

      • Dissolved proteins

      • Denser than water

    • Formed elements (45%)

      • Blood cells

      • Platelets (cell fragments)

Measuring blood
measuring blood

  • When we take blood, there are 3 characteristics we look at:

  • Temperature(100.4°F)

  • Viscosity (5x Water’s)

  • pH (7.35-7.45), Slightly Alkaline


  • Water takes up 92% of plasma volume

  • 8% Electrolytes, Proteins, Nutrients

  • Proteins:

  • Albumins (60%): of plasma proteins, produced in the liver, maintain osmotic balance (via water retention)

  • Globulins (35%):

    • Immunoglobulins: attack foreign proteins and pathogens; antibodies

    • Transport (escort) Proteins: carry compounds that are not water soluble (i.e. lipids)

  • Fibrinogens: function in blood clotting when converted to fibrin.

    *Liver synthesizes many of these proteins.

Not this

Formed elements
Formed elements

  • Produced via hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis)

  • Composition: (Hematocrit)

    • 99.9 % RedBloodCells (Erythrocytes)

    • <.1% WhiteBloodCells (Leukocytes)

      • ~ 1 to every 1000 RBCs

    • <.1% Platelets

Red blood cells
Red blood cells

  • Shape: Biconcave discs

  • Mature RBCs lack nuclei and other organs (Erythropoiesis)

  • Life cycle: ~120 days; 1% replaced each day (3 million new cells each second!)

  • Hemoglobin: made of two globular proteins; contains heme pigment which holds an iron ion that binds with oxygen

Hemoglobin iron in the blood
Hemoglobin – iron in the blood

heme a

close up of Fe


heme b

Clinical note sickle cell anemia
Clinical note: Sickle Cell ANemia

  • Cause: genetic mutation that affects the globular protein of hemoglobin

  • Sickled cells can easily clot and cause oxygen starvation of tissues

Antigens can trigger an immune response
Antigens – can trigger an immune response

  • Antibody generator

  • Four Blood Types:

    • Type A: surface antigen A, plasma Anti-B Antibodies

    • Type B: surface antigen B, plasma Anti-A Antibodies

    • Type AB: surface antigen A & B, no anti-A or B antibodies

    • Type O: no surface antigens A or B, plasma Anti-A & Anti-B Antibodies

    • (+/-): Determined by presence or absence of Rh antigens on RBCs

  • Cross-reactions: mixing of blood types can cause agglutination (clumping) of RBCs and eventual hemolysis (RBC destruction)

  • Anti-Rh antibodies are not normally present in plasma, unless exposure sensitizes an individual.

Platelets thrombocytes
Platelets – thrombocytes

  • Cell fragments that function in blood clotting

  • Formed from megakaryocytes

  • “Stick” together at injury sites to stop bleeding (hemostasis)

White blood cells leukocytes
White blood cells – leukocytes

  • Larger than RBCs, have nuclei, lack hemoglobin

  • Function: defense against pathogens, toxins, wastes and abnormal/damaged cells

  • Two groups: granulocytes & agranulocytes

  • Amoeboid movement

  • Migration out of the blood stream

  • Some capable of phagocytosis

  • Granulocytes

    • Neutrophils

    • Eosinophils

    • Basophils

  • Agranulocytes

    • Monocytes

    • Lymphocytes


  • 70% of WBSs

  • First to arrive at an injury site

  • Active phagocytes (esp. bacteria)

  • Produced in bone marrow

  • 10-hour lifespan

  • Death recruits other WBCs and forms pus


  • 2-4% of WBSs

  • Two-lobed and dyed red by eosin

  • Attack anti-body labeled materials by exocytosis (secretion) of toxins

  • Produced in bone marrow


  • <1% of WBSs

  • Deep purple/blue with many granules

  • Migrate to injury sites and stimulates inflammation (via histamine) and prevents blood clotting (heparin)

  • Stimulated basophils release chemicals to attract other basophils and eosinophils

  • Produced in bone marrow


  • 2-8% of WBSs

  • About twice as big as a RBC

  • Large free or fixed macrophages

  • Aggressive phagocytes

  • Active monocytes release chemicals to attract and stimulate other neutrophils, monocytes, phagocytes, and draw fibroblasts to the region.

  • Produced in bone marrow


  • 20-30% of WBCs

  • Large nucleus with “halo” of cytoplasm

  • Integrates with lymphatic system

  • Do not rely on phagocytosis

  • Produced in bone marrow and lymphoid tissues

Abnormal amounts of leukocytes
Abnormal amounts of leukocytes

  • Too few: leukopenia

  • Too many: leukocytosis

  • Extreme leukocytosis: leukemia

    • Cancer of blood-forming tissues.


  • Hemo “blood” + stasis “halt”: stops bleeding

  • Vascular Phase: constriction of damaged blood vessels (~30mins); blood vessel spasm

  • Platelet Phase: “sticky” platelets form a platelet plug

  • Coagulation Phase: conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Abnormal hemostasis
Abnormal hemostasis

  • Excessivecoagulation

    • Thrombus: blood clot attached to wall

    • Embolus: moving blood clot

      • i.e. strokes, pulmonary embolism: immobile embolus within a blood vessel.

  • Inadequate coagulation

    • Hemophilia

      • Missing clotting factor

      • Symptoms including excessive bleeding (external and internal)