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Solutions. Definitions. Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in. General Properties of Solutions. 1. solute particles in solutions are very small

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Definitions
Definitions

  • Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state

    • Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution

    • Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in


General properties of solutions
General Properties of Solutions

  • 1. solute particles in solutions are very small

  • 2. solute particles are evenly distributed throughout the solution

  • 3. particles in a solution will not separate under normal conditions


Types of solutions
Types of Solutions

  • Aqueous solutions: solutions with water as the solvent.

    • Electrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of ionic compounds. Ionic compounds dissociate allowing for the solution to conduct an electrical charge

    • Nonelectrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of molecular compounds. The solute does not dissociate.


Solution formation
Solution Formation

  • When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they dissociate

    NaCl --> Na+ + Cl-

  • Each component has an attraction to a certain part of the water molecules


Solubility rules
Solubility Rules

  • Used to predict the solubility of ionic compounds.

    • Not all ionic compounds are soluble in water.

    • Some only dissolve partially and some not at all.




Precipitation reactions1
Precipitation Reactions

  • Generally reactants are soluble ionic compounds dissolved in water.

  • When mixed, one of the possible cations joins with one of the anions to produce a compound that is insoluble.

    • The insoluble compound falls out of solution as a precipitate.



Net ionic equations
Net Ionic Equations potassium chloride. Write the complete balanced chemical equation with notations for state of matter.

  • Removes unused ions (spectator ions) from an equation.

  • Simpler form of a reaction

  • Examples: write net ionic equations for previous slide examples.


Solution concentration
Solution Concentration potassium chloride. Write the complete balanced chemical equation with notations for state of matter.


Molarity m

Mols of solute potassium chloride. Write the complete balanced chemical equation with notations for state of matter.

Liters of Solution

M =

Molarity (M)

  • Most common expression of solution concentration




Solution stoichiometry
Solution stoichiometry solution will be needed to obtain 70 grams of sulfuric acid? How many milliliters?




  • What volume of 0.750 M M lead (II) nitrate. Pb(NO3)2, in milliliters, is required to react completely with 1 L of 2.25 M NaCl?


Changing the concentration of a solution diluting
Changing the Concentration of a Solution (Diluting) M lead (II) nitrate.

M1V1 = M2V2





Saturation
Saturation hydroxide when provided with solid sodium hydroxide and distilled water.

  • Saturated: solution contains all possible solute under current conditions

  • Unsaturated: more solute can be dissolved

  • Supersaturated: solution contains solute past the saturation point for the current conditions


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