Solutions
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Solutions. Definitions. Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in. General Properties of Solutions. 1. solute particles in solutions are very small

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Solutions

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Solutions

Solutions


Definitions

Definitions

  • Solution: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state

    • Solute: the substance dissolved in the solution

    • Solvent: the substance the solute is dissolved in


General properties of solutions

General Properties of Solutions

  • 1. solute particles in solutions are very small

  • 2. solute particles are evenly distributed throughout the solution

  • 3. particles in a solution will not separate under normal conditions


Types of solutions

Types of Solutions

  • Aqueous solutions: solutions with water as the solvent.

    • Electrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of ionic compounds. Ionic compounds dissociate allowing for the solution to conduct an electrical charge

    • Nonelectrolyte solutions: aqueous solutions of molecular compounds. The solute does not dissociate.


Solution formation

Solution Formation

  • When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they dissociate

    NaCl --> Na+ + Cl-

  • Each component has an attraction to a certain part of the water molecules


Solubility rules

Solubility Rules

  • Used to predict the solubility of ionic compounds.

    • Not all ionic compounds are soluble in water.

    • Some only dissolve partially and some not at all.


Solubility rules1

Solubility Rules


Precipitation reactions

Precipitation reactions


Precipitation reactions1

Precipitation Reactions

  • Generally reactants are soluble ionic compounds dissolved in water.

  • When mixed, one of the possible cations joins with one of the anions to produce a compound that is insoluble.

    • The insoluble compound falls out of solution as a precipitate.


Solutions

  • A solution of silver nitrate is reacted with a solution of potassium chloride. Write the complete balanced chemical equation with notations for state of matter.

  • Write the equation for the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with ammonium sulfide.


Net ionic equations

Net Ionic Equations

  • Removes unused ions (spectator ions) from an equation.

  • Simpler form of a reaction

  • Examples: write net ionic equations for previous slide examples.


Solution concentration

Solution Concentration


Molarity m

Mols of solute

Liters of Solution

M =

Molarity (M)

  • Most common expression of solution concentration


Solutions

  • What is the molarity of a solution formed by mixing 38 grams of potassium hydroxide in enough water to make 250 mL of solution?


Solutions

  • If I have a 2.5 M sulfuric acid solution, how many liters of solution will be needed to obtain 70 grams of sulfuric acid? How many milliliters?


Solution stoichiometry

Solution stoichiometry


Solutions

  • 37 mL of a 0.45 M silver nitrate solution are reacted with 3 grams of copper. What mass of silver will be produced from the reaction?


Solutions

  • 18 mL of 1.39M sodium iodide is combined with 83 mL of 0.25 M lead (II) nitrate.

    • Will a reaction occur?

      • If a reaction occurs, what mass of precipitate should be produced?


Solutions

  • What volume of 0.750 M Pb(NO3)2, in milliliters, is required to react completely with 1 L of 2.25 M NaCl?


Changing the concentration of a solution diluting

Changing the Concentration of a Solution (Diluting)

M1V1 = M2V2


Solutions

  • What volume of 18 M sulfuric acid is needed to create 6 Liters of 3.25 M sulfuric acid?


Solutions

  • Describe how you would prepare 400 mL of a 3.75 M solution of nitric acid if given a supply of 14.3 M nitric acid.


Solutions

  • Describe how to prepare 500 mL of a 0.8 M solution of sodium hydroxide when provided with solid sodium hydroxide and distilled water.


Saturation

Saturation

  • Saturated: solution contains all possible solute under current conditions

  • Unsaturated: more solute can be dissolved

  • Supersaturated: solution contains solute past the saturation point for the current conditions


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