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WWII. The World Between the Wars. A Struggle for Change in Latin America. The Mexican Revolution Desires for land, better wages, and democratic reforms Result: a new constitution that set goals for future social and political changes Nationalism The Good Neighbor Policy.

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The world between the wars

The World Between the Wars

A struggle for change in latin america

A Struggle for Change in Latin America

  • The Mexican Revolution

  • Desires for land, better wages, and democratic reforms

  • Result: a new constitution that set goals for future social and political changes

  • Nationalism

  • The Good Neighbor Policy

Nationalist movements in africa and the middle east

Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East

  • Africa – opposition to imperialism spread as the Pan-African and negritude movements developed.

  • Modernization in Turkey and Iran

  • Pan-Arab movements sought Arab unity and freedom from foreign domination

  • Promises in Palestine

India seeks self rule

India Seeks Self-Rule

  • Moves toward independence – Amritsar massacre

  • Mohandas Gandhi and The Salt March

  • Muslims become fearful of then Hindu majority and began to call for a separate Muslim state

Upheavals in china

Upheavals in China

  • The Chinese Republic was crippled by feuding warlords, a collapsed economy, famine, and increasing foreign influence

  • May Fourth Movement

  • 1927 – Civil war erupts between the Guomindang and Communists.

  • Japanese invasion

Empire of the rising sun

Empire of the Rising Sun

  • 1920s- Japan’s political parties and democratic parliament grew stronger

  • Great Depression fueled dissatisfaction among militarists and extreme nationalists

  • 1930s- the Japanese military dominated a government that emphasized obedience to the emperor, service to the state, and a policy of imperial expansion

Treaty of versailles


Treaty of Versailles

League of nations

League of Nations

Ineffectiveness of the league of nations

Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations

  • No control over major conflicts

  • No progress in disarmament

  • No effective military force

France pursues security

France Pursues Security

The Maginot Line

Locarno pact 1925

Locarno Pact: 1925

Stresemann (Ger.)

Chamberlain (Br.)

  • Guaranteed the borders of France, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles

Briand (Fr.)

Kellogg briand pact 1928

Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928

  • 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes

  • Problem – no way of enforcement

The great depression

The Great Depression


Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life.



  • A form of extreme right-wing ideology.

  • It celebrates the nation or the race as an organic community transcending all other loyalties.

  • Powerful and continuing nationalism.

    • Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, etc.

    • Flags are seen everywhere.

  • It uses organized violence to suppress opposition.

    • Glorification of force.

    • Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism.

    • Is anti-democratic.




From the German Point of View

Lost – but not forgotten country

Into your heart you are to dig these words as into stone; Which we have lost may not truly be lost!


The “Stab-In-The-Back” Theory.

German soldiers are dissatisfied

Weimar republic

Weimar Republic

Adolf hitler

Adolf Hitler

  • Totalitarian Rule

  • SS troops and Gestapo helped Hitler control all aspects of German life

  • Economic Programs

  • Nazis indoctrinate young people with their ideologies (like Fascists and Communists)

  • Nazi’s sought to purify German culture

  • Campaign against the Jews

  • November 9 and 10, 1938 Kristallnacht

  • “ The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Than they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up…Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up.”

    • Martin Niemoller

Aggression appeasement and war

Aggression, Appeasement, and War

Dictators challenge world peace

Dictators Challenge World Peace

  • Japan seizes Manchuria in 1931 and withdrew from the League of Nations

  • 1936 Italy: Mussolini conquered Ethiopia (finally took revenge on them)

  • Germans: Hated the Versailles treaty. Hitler built up their military and sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland bordering France.

Manchurian crisis 1931

Manchurian Crisis, 1931

Japan invades manchuria 1931

Japan invades Manchuria, 1931

Italy invades ethiopia 1935

Italy Invades Ethiopia, 1935

Emperor Haile Selassie

Germany invades the rhineland march 7 1936

Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936

Dictators challenge world peace1

Dictators Challenge World Peace

  • Appeasement: giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep peace.

  • Some westerners viewed Hitler as a defense against a worse evil- Soviet Communism

  • Pacifism

  • Neutrality Acts (U.S.A.): avoid involvement in European war.

  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: Italy, Germany, and Japan

Spanish civil war

Spanish Civil War

  • Nationalists:

    • Fascists

    • Supported by Germany and Italy

    • German air raid on Guernica

    • Triumphant in 1939 and set up a fascist dictatorship like those of Hitler and Mussolini

  • Loyalists

    • Supported by U.S. and Great Britain (even though they remained neutral)

    • Republic

    • Communists

    • Socialists

    • Marxists

Spanish civil war a dress rehearsal for wwii

Spanish Civil War: A dress rehearsal for WWII?

German aggression continues

German Aggression Continues

  • Anschluss: Union of Germany and Austria

  • Hitler annexes the Sudetenland in 1938.

  • The Munich Pact



Removal of the border



Appeasement the munich agreement 1938

Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938

  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

  • Now we have “peace for our time” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

Axis powers rome berlin tokyo

Axis Powers: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo

  • Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin

  • Germany “annexes” Austria then Czechoslovakia  finally Poland

    • (Neville Chamberlain*)

    • Britain and France are unwilling to challenge either Italy or Germany (appeasement)

  • But then… With the invasion of POLAND, England & France declare WAR

Europe plunges into war

Europe Plunges Into War

  • 1939 Appeasement failed: Germany took over all of Czechoslovakia.

  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

    • Stalin and Hitler agreed mot to fight if the other went to war

    • To divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe

  • Invasion of Poland

    • September 1, 1939

    • Britain and France declare war

Why war came

Why War Came?

  • Axis aggression

  • Appeasement policy

  • Revision of 1919 Versailles treaty

  • Why did western democracies fail to respond forcefully to the Nazi threat?

  • Could WWII have been avoided?

The global conflict axis advances

The Global Conflict: Axis Advances

Early axis gains

Early Axis Gains

  • Blitzkrieg September 1, 1939

German troops march into Warsaw

Early axis gains1

Early Axis Gains

  • The “Phony War”

  • Miracle of Dunkirk

  • France Falls – June 22, 1940

Dunkirk evacuated June 4, 1940

France surrenders june 20 1940

France surrenders June 20, 1940

The french resistance

The French Resistance

The French Resistance Flag

Charles de Gaulle

Africa and the balkans

Africa and the Balkans

  • Axis powers have a string of success in 1941 and 1942 in Africa

  • Italy invades Greece and Yugoslavia

  • By 1914 the Axis powers or their allies controlled most of Western Europe

  • General Erwin Rommel – the Desert Fox

Axis powers in 1942

Axis Powers in 1942


Who is this?

The battle of britain and the blitz

The Battle of Britain and the Blitz

  • Winston Churchill

  • Operation Sea Lion

  • The London Blitz

  • Failure of Operation Sea Lion

Early war efforts

Early War Efforts

  • LONDON BLITZ- Germany wanted to break the spirit of the British by bombing the capital.

  • German planes bombed London for almost a year (1940-1941)

  • Operation Sea Lion was a failure.

  • British resolve stronger than ever.

    • Winston Churchill**

The london tube air raids shelter during the blitz

The London Tube: Air Raids Shelter During the Blitz

Operation barbarossa the conquest of the soviet union hitler s biggest mistake

Operation Barbarossa: The Conquest of the Soviet Union – Hitler’s biggest mistake

  • 3,000,000 German troops caught Stalin unprepared.

The siege of leningrad

The Siege of Leningrad

2 ½ year siege of Leningrad, Stalin urged Churchill to open up a second front.

American involvement grows

American Involvement Grows

Lend-Lease Act

American involvement grows1

American Involvement Grows

Atlantic Charter

Seizing the opportunity

Seizing the Opportunity

  • During the early part of the war, Japan seized the chance to grab European colonies in Asia.

  • Imperialism had a hand in the reasons that Japan went to war….

1937 December, Chinese dead bodies on the shore of Yangtze River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby



Japan attacks

Japan Attacks


Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan…

..With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.

Japanese victories

Japanese Victories

European and American possessions in the Pacific fell one by one to the Japanese.

The global conflict allied successes

The Global Conflict: Allied Successes

Theaters of operation during wwii

Theaters of Operation during WWII

Occupied lands

Occupied Lands

  • Nazi Europe

    • Hitler set up puppet governments in Western European countries run by “Aryans” or related “races.”

    • Slavs of Eastern Europe were shoved aside to provide more “living space” for Germans.

    • Slavs and others were forced to work as slave laborers in German war industries.



  • Hitler’s “final solution” of the Jewish problem” (genocide)

  • Other targets included Slavs, Gypsies, and the mentally ill

  • To accomplish this goal, Hitler had special “death camps” built in Poland

Auschwitz death camp

Auschwitz: Death Camp

Dachau labor and experimentation camp

Dachau: Labor and Experimentation Camp

The allied war effort

The Allied War Effort

  • The Big Three- Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin.

  • Agree to finish the war in Europe before turning to Asia

Total war

Total War

  • Factories stopped making cars or refrigerators, instead making airplanes or tanks.

  • Governments rationed consumer goods

  • Government limited the rights of citizens, censored the press, and used propaganda to win public support.

  • Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians were placed in internment camps

  • On the positive side, while the war brought hardships, it ended the unemployment of the depression era.

Paying for the war

Paying for the War

Betty garble allied pin up girl she reminded men what they were fighting for

Betty Garble: Allied pin-up girl, she reminded men what they were fighting for

Women help win the war

Women Help Win the War

  • Replaced men in essential jobs

  • Built ships and planes, produced munitions, and staffed offices

  • Served in the armed forces driving trucks and ambulances, delivering airplanes, decoding messages, and assisting antiaircraft sites

Lily Litvak: Soviet pilot, shot down 12 German planes before she herself was killed.

Turning points

Turning Points

  • During 1942 and 1943, the Allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle and push back the Axis powers. The first of these turning points came in North Africa and Italy.

Allied invasion of Italy, July 1943

El Alamein: British General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Rommel’s advance.

El alamein

El Alamein

General Ernst Rommel: The “Desert Fox”

British General Bernard Montgomery: “Monty”

Invasion of italy

Invasion of Italy

  • Victory in North Africa let the Allies leap across the Mediterranean into Italy

  • British and American forces defeated Italian forces in one month

George c scott playing patton in the 1968 movie patton

George C. Scott Playing Patton in the 1968 movie “Patton”

The red army resists

The Red Army Resists

Another major turning point in the war occurred in the Soviet Union. Germans were stalled outside Moscow and Leningrad. In 1942, Hitler launched a new offensive.

  • Stalingrad: One of the costliest battles in the war.

The battle cost the Germans 300,000 troops. The Red Army took the offensive and drove the invaders out of the Soviet Union.

Invasion of france

Invasion of France

  • By 1944, the Allies were at last ready to open up a second front in Europe – with the invasion of France.

  • Allied troops prepared in England

  • General Eisenhower led the Allied troops June 6, 1944 – D-Day – across the English Channel

General eisenhower gives orders for operation overlord

General Eisenhower gives orders for “Operation Overlord”

D day june 6 1944

D-Day June 6, 1944

D day


Toward victory

Toward Victory


1942-1945: The War in the Pacific.

USN Dauntlesses Dive bombers in the pacific

War in the pacific

War in the Pacific

  • Bataan Death March – 68 mile march to prison camp, killing several hundred American soldiers and about 10,000 Filipino

  • Battle of Midway – turning point

  • “Island Hopping” campaign – MacArthur's strategy

Bataan death march

Bataan Death March

June 1942 the battle of midway

June 1942: The Battle of Midway

The Battle of Midway was the 1st major US victory in the Pacific & a major turning point in the war.


US Navy dive-bombers fight of Japan's fighter during the battle of Midway


  • The US Fleet sinks four Japanese carriers.

  • After Midway the US goes on the offense (turning point)

The island hopping

The Island Hopping

Iwo Jima after the US invasion


  • Macarthur's plan is to take only the island you need, let the Japanese starve on the other islands.


Landing operations in the Solomon Islands

M4 tank crew on iwo jima calling out a target

M4 Tank crew on Iwo Jima calling out a target

(25 A) 3


Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima.

(27 A) 12


Army song

The nazis defeated

The Nazis Defeated

  • The Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last success, the battle only delayed the allied advance

  • Allied powers on the west and Soviets on the East cross into Germany

  • Mussolini is captured and executed and Hitler commits suicide

  • V-E Day May 8, 1945

Us in the war in europe

US in the War in Europe

Germany’s Last Stand: Battle of the Bulge delayed the inevitable defeat of the Germans

Mussolini s death

Mussolini’s death

1944 1945 the germans are defeated

1944-1945: The Germans are defeated.

US troops enter Germany


  • The Western Allies take Paris and invade Germany.

1945: US soldiers on parade in Paris

May 7 th 1945 v e day berlin falls to the soviets and germany surrenders

(24) 9

May 7th 1945: V-E Day Berlin falls to the Soviets and Germany surrenders.

Defeat of japan

Defeat of Japan

  • With the war won in Europe, the Allies poured their resources into defeating Japan.

  • Kamikaze pilots

  • Hiroshima – August 6, 1945

  • Nagasaki – August 8, 1945

  • V-J Day – August 14, 1945

  • Why did Truman use the bomb?


  • Japan resorts to suicide attacks to increase US casualties.

Though the Japanese were losing, they had 2 million troops and a determination to fight to the last man, woman, and child.


The US makes the decision to use the atomic

bomb on Japan in order to limit US casualties.

The Enola Gay landing at Tinian Island after dropping the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima- August 6, 1945

August 9 th 1945 the us drops the second atomic bomb on nagasaki

August 9th 1945: The US drops the second ATOMIC BOMB on Nagasaki.

He that sows the wind

“He that sows the wind…

Shall reap the whirl wind

…shall reap the whirl wind.”

The Japanese were going to continue, but on August 10, 1945, the Emperor broke with the tradition of staying out of the picture, and called for the war to end.

September 2 1945 japan signs the surrender document on the uss missouri

September 2, 1945: Japan signs the surrender document on the USS Missouri

From world war to cold war

From World War to Cold War

Horrors of the holocaust

Horrors of the Holocaust

Rudolf Hoess, Nazi commander at Auschwitz, would later admit that he had supervised the killing of some two and a half million people

Nuremburg trials

Nuremburg Trials

Execution of Jews by Nazis, used as evidence during the trials

German officers on trial: Goring, Hess, von Riddentrop, and Keitel.

Second row: Donitz, Raeder, Schirach, Saukel

Allied occupation of germany

Allied Occupation of Germany

Allies in Dusseldorf

United nations

United Nations

  • Organization to ensure peace

  • Eventually takes on many other world problems: preventing the outbreak of disease, improving education, protecting refugees, and aiding nations to develop economically

The cold war

The Cold War

  • Capitalism vs. Communism

  • The “iron curtain”

The truman doctrine

The Truman Doctrine

  • Policy that guided the United States for decades

  • Americans would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or elsewhere in the world

  • Main idea: Containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control

    George Kennan

    - proposed


The marshall plan

The Marshall Plan

Berlin airlift

Berlin Airlift

The arms race

The Arms Race

  • NATO

  • Balance of power to “balance of terror”

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