WWII
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WWII. The Path to War: ASIA. Japanese Territorial Expansion. Natural resources ‘31 invaded Manchuria Coal and iron ore ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo League of Nations ineffective in stopping Demanded w/ drawal from China

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Wwii

WWII

The Path to War: ASIA


Japanese territorial expansion

Japanese Territorial Expansion

  • Natural resources

    • ‘31 invaded Manchuria

      • Coal and iron ore

    • ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo

  • League of Nations ineffective in stopping

    • Demanded w/drawal from China

    • March ‘33 Japan withdrew from the League and remained in Manchukuo

  • Encouraged Italy and Germany to expand


  • Expansion cont

    Expansion Cont

    • Early ‘30s

      • East Indies for oil

      • Needs Chinese ports

      • ‘37 Japan invades South and East China

      • Nanjing Massacre = 300,000 killed by Japanese

    • ‘37 – ‘45 Nat' lists, Ch. Comm. and Jap. fight for control of China


    Wwii

    WWII

    Path to War: Europe


    Italy

    Italy

    • Goal: control Ethiopia

    • ‘34 – border clash and The League did nothing

    • October ‘35 Italy invades

    • The League imposed economic sanctions

      • Included weapons but not oil, coal, iron

      • Ineffective

  • May ‘36 Ethiopia was annexed


  • Civil war in spain

    Civil War in Spain

    • Spain became a Republic in 1931

    • July 1936 Nationalists revolted

      • Francisco Franco

    • Foreign powers intervened

      • Soviet Union + others = Republicans

      • Germany = Nationalists

  • 1939 Results

    • Nationalists won in 1939

    • Franco becomes new fascist dictator

  • DID NOT ALLY W/ GERMANY OR ITALY!


  • Germany s conquest begins

    Germany’s Conquest Begins

    • Hitler attacked the Rhineland in March ‘36

      • Prohibited by V. T.

      • No one acted

  • New alliances threaten peace

    • Rome-Berlin Axis (Oct ‘36)

    • Anti-Comintern Pact added Japan

    • Stalin urged West to form

      • Nothing happened


  • 1 st victim

    1st victim

    • Austria

      • ‘34 Hitler wanted Aust. to join to Ger.

        • Italy mobilized along Aust. border

      • ‘38 Ger. and It. = Allied

        • Hitler tried again

          • March ‘38

          • Offered Political stability

          • United German speaking people

      • Austria asks for help

        • None


    2 nd victim

    2nd victim

    • Czechoslovakia

      • Target b/c prosperous

      • Ethnic conflicts

      • Appeasement

      • Sept ‘38 – Sudetenland

      • Munich Conference (Sept 29, 1938) – Neville Chamberlain (GB) tries to negotiate peace

        • Ger. got Sudetenland

        • Hitler would respect Czech’s freedom

          • Hitler would not take any more territory

        • March 15, 1939 Hitler takes over Czech

      • Western Democracies begin to prepare for war.


    The coming of war

    The Coming of War

    • March 1939 Hitler turns East

      • Memel, Lithuania

      • Danzig, Poland

  • West and Soviets suspicious of each other

    • No alliance was ever formed to stop Hitler.

  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

    • Aug 23, 1939

    • Pledged they would never attack each other

    • Would remain neutral if the other was in war

    • Outlined “spheres of influence”


  • The battle fronts

    The Battle Fronts

    1939 - 1941


    War begins

    War Begins

    • Hitler invaded Poland on Sept 1, 1939

      • Assumed the West would do nothing

    • Two days later, GB and FR declared war on Germany

    • WWII has begun


    Early conquests

    Early Conquests

    • Sept 1, 1939 blitzkrieg on Poland

      • “lightning war” – surprise

      • Used the Luftwaffe, panzers, and then the infantry

      • Poland fell in weeks

  • Stalin forced military bases in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, then Finland.


  • Hitler looks to the west

    Hitler Looks to the West

    • 1939 – 1940 Sitzkreig

      • Quiet on the Western Front

    • Scandinavia Falls (April – May 1940)

      • April 1940 GB tries to protect Norway

      • Hitler said the Allies were invading and Denmark and Norway accept “protection of the Reich”

        • Denmark accepts

        • Norway rejects

      • April 9 Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark

        • Germ – loses part of navy

        • Germ – won outlet to the Atlantic

        • Chamberlain replaced by Winston Churchill – May 10, 1940


    Fall of france

    Fall of France

    • Maginot Line…

    • May 10, 1940 Hitler attacks the Low Countries – Lux, Nether, Bel

    • GB, FR move troops to Bel and Hitler uses opening and invades with Panzers

    • Bel, GB, & FR troops trapped; rescued at Dunkirk

    • Germ takes to Paris on June 14

    • FR signs an armistice


    The battle for britain

    The Battle for Britain

    • Hitler’s plan:

      • Win the English Channel

      • Destroy airfields and industries

  • Began August 1940

    • Focus = RAF; Aug 24 – Sept 6 1000 planes/day

    • RAF losses = 466 planes, 103 pilots

    • German losses >

  • Sept 7 – Nov 3 blitzed London

    • Huge damage to London

    • British Hurricanes, Spitfires successful in destroying German pilots.

  • Results:

    • Germany’s 1st loss

    • U.S. Aid (see next slide)


  • Wwii

    http://www.llgc.org.uk/illingworth/illingworth_s040.htm


    American cooperation

    American Cooperation

    • Neutrality Acts…

    • FDR wants to help b/c feels threatened by Hitler

      • Gave 50 old destroyers to GB

      • Enacted cash-and-carry policy

      • Switches to lend-lease policy when GB runs out of $

  • GB and US sign Atlantic Charter (Aug 9, 1941)

    • Freedom of trade

    • Right of people to choose govt

    • Final destruction of Nazi tyranny


  • Eastern europe and africa

    Eastern Europe and Africa

    • June 10, 1940 Italy declares war on FR and GB

    • Battle at Libya (Dec 9, 1940)

    • By 1941 Germany claims Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary

    • April ’41 GB defeated at Yugoslavia and Greece; forced to escape by sea.

    • April 11, 1941Germ tanks pushed GB out of N. Libya


    Invasion of the soviet union

    Invasion of the Soviet Union

    • Hitler’s Goal: get more “living space,” wheat, and oil

    • Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941)

      • German offensive on the SU; a surprise

      • To stop GERM, Stalin orders the scorched-earth policy

      • By Nov 1941, Germany pushed 600 miles inland, controlled 40% of the population, and had taken key cities.

      • Soviet resistance was strong and the winter was harsh

      • Dec 2, 1941 GERM was forced to retreat.


    Japanese expansion

    Japanese Expansion

    • Controlled much of China by the late 1930s

    • July 1940 started the “greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” by taking European colonies such as French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, and Singapore (GB)

    • Response: US placed an embargo on iron

    • Tripartite Pact (Sept 27, 1940)

      • Alliance between GERM, IT, and JAPAN


    Japan s attack and us entry

    Japan’s Attack and US Entry


    Tensions mount

    Tensions Mount

    • Japan attacked Indochina on July 24, 1941

      • US Response

        • Demanded w/drawal from Indochina and China

        • Embargo on oil

        • Froze all Japanese assets in America

  • Hideki Tojo – military dictator - decides to go to war to continue expansion.


  • The plan

    The Plan…

    • US Pacific Fleet was based in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    • Yamamoto – commander of JAP navy – plans secret attack

      • November 1941 – JAP fleet leaves for target

      • Japan stages negotiation talks with FDR

  • As talks break down, FDR sends all aircraft carriers and half of the army’s airplanes to Pearl Harbor in prep for attack in SE Asia


  • The attack

    The Attack

    • December 7, 1941

    • W/in 25 minutes torpedoes sank battleships Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California

    • Results:

      • 19 American ships sank or damaged

      • 188 airplanes were destroyed

      • Over 2400 killed

      • 1100 wounded

  • Dec. 8, 1941

  • December 9, 1941 the US declared war on Japan


  • The homefront

    The Homefront


    Production

    Production

    • US = Allies biggest supplier

      • Planes, tanks, jeeps, guns, ships

  • Created an economic boom

  • Population shift to war-industry cities (west)

  • Increase in farm production


  • Government expansion

    Government Expansion

    • New Agencies

      • Office of War Mobilization (OWM)

      • War Production Board (WPB)


    Economy

    Economy

    • To pay for the war:

      • Gov't increased the tax base

      • Encouraged war bonds

  • To stop inflation

    • Bonds

    • Rationing

      • Gasoline, heating fuel, tires, coffee, sugar, meat, butter, canned goods


  • The army

    The Army

    • Selective Training and Service Act

      • 21-35 HAD TO register

      • Deferments

  • WWII = 2/3 drafted

  • 300,000 women served

    • WAACS, WASPS, WAVES, SPARS

    • ANC, NNC

    • ROSIE THE RIVETER


  • Promoting the war

    Promoting the War

    • Movies

    • Songs

    • Radio stations


    Japanese american relocation

    Japanese-American Relocation

    • 119,000 Jap-Am on West Coast

    • 1942 – 1945 = Hysteria; imprisoned in 10 relocations camps

      • Minidoka, Tule Lake, Manzanar, Topaz, Granada, Heart Mountain, Poston, Gila River, Rohwer, Jerome

  • Losses = $400 million in property

  • Wanted to disprove accusation of disloyalty


  • Relocation camps

    Relocation Camps


    Camp layouts

    Camp Layouts


    Typical barracks room at manzanar april 1942

    Typical barracks room at Manzanar, April 1942


    Remains of security fence manzanar

    Remains of Security Fence, Manzanar


    Manzanar relocation center with mount williamson in the background 1942

    Manzanar Relocation Center, with Mount Williamson in the Background, 1942


    Battle fronts europe 1942 1945

    Battle Fronts:Europe 1942 – 1945


    Invasion of italy

    Invasion of Italy

    • Attack on Sicily (Mid 1943)

      • Led by Gen. Eisenhower

      • ~40,000 GERMS and 70,000 ITS forces to flee

  • Mussolini’s Downfall

    • July 25, 1943 King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini; has him arrested (later assassinated)

    • Fascist party dissolved

    • Hitler defends Italy and Mussolini in the North

  • Allied forces fight up the peninsula and take Naples, Rome, and Florence.

  • Italy surrenders on June 4, 1944


  • D day

    D-Day

    • Operation Overlord - Allied invasion to win back France

    • June 6, 1944 = D-Day

    • Allied Expeditionary Force led by Eisenhower

    • Tremendous Allied Power:

      • 3 million men

      • 16 million tons of weapons/supplies

      • 9,000 boats

      • 11,000 aircraft


    D day cont

    D-Day cont…

    • Eisenhower’s men cross the English Channel and land at Normandy Beach

      • Bombers, paratroopers

      • Reclaim Paris on Aug 25

  • Continues for months

    • Allies win back Fr, Bel, and the Neths.

    • Germans launch counterattack but are defeated at the Battle of the Bulge


  • The pacific war

    The Pacific War

    • At 1st, JAP seen as liberators, but were soon hated for killing civilians and taking land.

    • Victories:

      • Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)

      • Battle of Midway (June 1942); JAP navy defeated

      • Guadalcanal (Aug 1942)

        • Allies, led by Douglas MacArthur, led land, sea, and air battle

        • After 6 months, won 1st of “island hopping” campaigns

  • By Nov 1943 JAPs resort to kamikaze tactics


  • Allied victories

    Allied Victories

    The End


    Victory over germany

    Victory Over Germany

    • Battle of the Bulge (Dec 6, 1944 – Jan 15, 1945)

      • German offensive to put a “bulge” in the Allied advance in Belgium

      • Allies stop at the Rhine River

      • Allied use air attacks on German cities – kill 100,000s

  • Soviets move in from East and met US troops at Berlin – late April 1945

  • May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders

  • May 8, 1945 = V-E Day

    • Partisans in IT kill Mussolini

    • Hitler Committed suicide


  • Yalta and potsdam

    Yalta and Potsdam

    • Early 1945 FDR, Churchill, and Stall met at Yalta to discuss postwar Europe

      • US, GB, FR, USSR, and CHI = United Nations

      • Divide GERM, along with Berlin into 4 zones

      • Soviet-occupied regions of E. EURO would hold free elections

      • USSR would get E. Poland

      • Poland would get part of Germany

      • Stalin promised to declare war on JAP to end war

      • USSR would get 3 islands in the N. Pacific

  • Later 1945, meet at Potsdam in Germ

    • Harry S. Truman replaced FDR, Clemet Attlee replaced Churchill

    • Results: Ultimatum to Japan; new tensions…


  • Victory over japan

    Victory Over Japan

    • By end of ‘44, Allied victory clear but JAP wouldn’t surrender

    • JAP rejected ultimatum in July ‘45

    • Truman decided to use the Atomic Bomb

      • End quickly

      • Avoid enormous loss of life with invasion

      • Intimidate USSR


    Wwii

    • Two bombs

      • Hiroshima –Aug 6, 1945

      • Nagasaki – Aug 9, 1945

  • Effects

    • 200,000 JAP die, more later b/c of radioactivity

    • Aug 14, 1945 JAP surrender

  • V-J Day = Sept 2, 1945

  • WWII is over


  • Results

    Results

    • Expensive

    • Millions homeless in Europe

    • Japan – new constitution, more democratic

    • Germany divided

    • US and USSR became main world powers


    Wwii

    • USSR dominates E EURO

    • UN formed

    • Holocaust

    • Loss of Human Life

      • Over 55 million died – 30 mil were civilians

        • USSR = 22 mil

        • GERM = 8 mil

        • JAP = 2 mill

        • US = 300,000


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