slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
WWII

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 73

WWII - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 101 Views
  • Uploaded on

WWII. The Path to War: ASIA. Japanese Territorial Expansion. Natural resources ‘31 invaded Manchuria Coal and iron ore ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo League of Nations ineffective in stopping Demanded w/ drawal from China

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' WWII' - lavina


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

WWII

The Path to War: ASIA

japanese territorial expansion
Japanese Territorial Expansion
  • Natural resources
      • ‘31 invaded Manchuria
        • Coal and iron ore
      • ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo
  • League of Nations ineffective in stopping
      • Demanded w/drawal from China
      • March ‘33 Japan withdrew from the League and remained in Manchukuo
  • Encouraged Italy and Germany to expand
expansion cont
Expansion Cont
  • Early ‘30s
    • East Indies for oil
    • Needs Chinese ports
    • ‘37 Japan invades South and East China
    • Nanjing Massacre = 300,000 killed by Japanese
  • ‘37 – ‘45 Nat\' lists, Ch. Comm. and Jap. fight for control of China
slide4

WWII

Path to War: Europe

italy
Italy
  • Goal: control Ethiopia
  • ‘34 – border clash and The League did nothing
  • October ‘35 Italy invades
  • The League imposed economic sanctions
      • Included weapons but not oil, coal, iron
      • Ineffective
  • May ‘36 Ethiopia was annexed
civil war in spain
Civil War in Spain
  • Spain became a Republic in 1931
  • July 1936 Nationalists revolted
    • Francisco Franco
  • Foreign powers intervened
      • Soviet Union + others = Republicans
      • Germany = Nationalists
  • 1939 Results
    • Nationalists won in 1939
    • Franco becomes new fascist dictator
  • DID NOT ALLY W/ GERMANY OR ITALY!
germany s conquest begins
Germany’s Conquest Begins
  • Hitler attacked the Rhineland in March ‘36
      • Prohibited by V. T.
      • No one acted
  • New alliances threaten peace
      • Rome-Berlin Axis (Oct ‘36)
      • Anti-Comintern Pact added Japan
      • Stalin urged West to form
        • Nothing happened
1 st victim
1st victim
  • Austria
      • ‘34 Hitler wanted Aust. to join to Ger.
        • Italy mobilized along Aust. border
      • ‘38 Ger. and It. = Allied
        • Hitler tried again
          • March ‘38
          • Offered Political stability
          • United German speaking people
      • Austria asks for help
        • None
2 nd victim
2nd victim
  • Czechoslovakia
      • Target b/c prosperous
      • Ethnic conflicts
      • Appeasement
      • Sept ‘38 – Sudetenland
      • Munich Conference (Sept 29, 1938) – Neville Chamberlain (GB) tries to negotiate peace
        • Ger. got Sudetenland
        • Hitler would respect Czech’s freedom
          • Hitler would not take any more territory
        • March 15, 1939 Hitler takes over Czech
      • Western Democracies begin to prepare for war.
the coming of war
The Coming of War
  • March 1939 Hitler turns East
      • Memel, Lithuania
      • Danzig, Poland
  • West and Soviets suspicious of each other
    • No alliance was ever formed to stop Hitler.
  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
      • Aug 23, 1939
      • Pledged they would never attack each other
      • Would remain neutral if the other was in war
      • Outlined “spheres of influence”
war begins
War Begins
  • Hitler invaded Poland on Sept 1, 1939
    • Assumed the West would do nothing
  • Two days later, GB and FR declared war on Germany
  • WWII has begun
early conquests
Early Conquests
  • Sept 1, 1939 blitzkrieg on Poland
      • “lightning war” – surprise
      • Used the Luftwaffe, panzers, and then the infantry
      • Poland fell in weeks
  • Stalin forced military bases in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, then Finland.
hitler looks to the west
Hitler Looks to the West
  • 1939 – 1940 Sitzkreig
    • Quiet on the Western Front
  • Scandinavia Falls (April – May 1940)
      • April 1940 GB tries to protect Norway
      • Hitler said the Allies were invading and Denmark and Norway accept “protection of the Reich”
        • Denmark accepts
        • Norway rejects
      • April 9 Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark
        • Germ – loses part of navy
        • Germ – won outlet to the Atlantic
        • Chamberlain replaced by Winston Churchill – May 10, 1940
fall of france
Fall of France
  • Maginot Line…
  • May 10, 1940 Hitler attacks the Low Countries – Lux, Nether, Bel
  • GB, FR move troops to Bel and Hitler uses opening and invades with Panzers
  • Bel, GB, & FR troops trapped; rescued at Dunkirk
  • Germ takes to Paris on June 14
  • FR signs an armistice
the battle for britain
The Battle for Britain
  • Hitler’s plan:
      • Win the English Channel
      • Destroy airfields and industries
  • Began August 1940
      • Focus = RAF; Aug 24 – Sept 6 1000 planes/day
      • RAF losses = 466 planes, 103 pilots
      • German losses >
  • Sept 7 – Nov 3 blitzed London
      • Huge damage to London
      • British Hurricanes, Spitfires successful in destroying German pilots.
  • Results:
      • Germany’s 1st loss
      • U.S. Aid (see next slide)
american cooperation
American Cooperation
  • Neutrality Acts…
  • FDR wants to help b/c feels threatened by Hitler
      • Gave 50 old destroyers to GB
      • Enacted cash-and-carry policy
      • Switches to lend-lease policy when GB runs out of $
  • GB and US sign Atlantic Charter (Aug 9, 1941)
      • Freedom of trade
      • Right of people to choose govt
      • Final destruction of Nazi tyranny
eastern europe and africa
Eastern Europe and Africa
  • June 10, 1940 Italy declares war on FR and GB
  • Battle at Libya (Dec 9, 1940)
  • By 1941 Germany claims Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary
  • April ’41 GB defeated at Yugoslavia and Greece; forced to escape by sea.
  • April 11, 1941Germ tanks pushed GB out of N. Libya
invasion of the soviet union
Invasion of the Soviet Union
  • Hitler’s Goal: get more “living space,” wheat, and oil
  • Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941)
      • German offensive on the SU; a surprise
      • To stop GERM, Stalin orders the scorched-earth policy
      • By Nov 1941, Germany pushed 600 miles inland, controlled 40% of the population, and had taken key cities.
      • Soviet resistance was strong and the winter was harsh
      • Dec 2, 1941 GERM was forced to retreat.
japanese expansion
Japanese Expansion
  • Controlled much of China by the late 1930s
  • July 1940 started the “greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” by taking European colonies such as French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, and Singapore (GB)
  • Response: US placed an embargo on iron
  • Tripartite Pact (Sept 27, 1940)
      • Alliance between GERM, IT, and JAPAN
tensions mount
Tensions Mount
  • Japan attacked Indochina on July 24, 1941
      • US Response
          • Demanded w/drawal from Indochina and China
          • Embargo on oil
          • Froze all Japanese assets in America
  • Hideki Tojo – military dictator - decides to go to war to continue expansion.
the plan
The Plan…
  • US Pacific Fleet was based in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • Yamamoto – commander of JAP navy – plans secret attack
      • November 1941 – JAP fleet leaves for target
      • Japan stages negotiation talks with FDR
  • As talks break down, FDR sends all aircraft carriers and half of the army’s airplanes to Pearl Harbor in prep for attack in SE Asia
the attack
The Attack
  • December 7, 1941
  • W/in 25 minutes torpedoes sank battleships Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California
  • Results:
      • 19 American ships sank or damaged
      • 188 airplanes were destroyed
      • Over 2400 killed
      • 1100 wounded
  • Dec. 8, 1941
  • December 9, 1941 the US declared war on Japan
production
Production
  • US = Allies biggest supplier
      • Planes, tanks, jeeps, guns, ships
  • Created an economic boom
  • Population shift to war-industry cities (west)
  • Increase in farm production
government expansion
Government Expansion
  • New Agencies
      • Office of War Mobilization (OWM)
      • War Production Board (WPB)
economy
Economy
  • To pay for the war:
      • Gov\'t increased the tax base
      • Encouraged war bonds
  • To stop inflation
      • Bonds
      • Rationing
          • Gasoline, heating fuel, tires, coffee, sugar, meat, butter, canned goods
the army
The Army
  • Selective Training and Service Act
      • 21-35 HAD TO register
      • Deferments
  • WWII = 2/3 drafted
  • 300,000 women served
      • WAACS, WASPS, WAVES, SPARS
      • ANC, NNC
      • ROSIE THE RIVETER
promoting the war
Promoting the War
  • Movies
  • Songs
  • Radio stations
japanese american relocation
Japanese-American Relocation
  • 119,000 Jap-Am on West Coast
  • 1942 – 1945 = Hysteria; imprisoned in 10 relocations camps
      • Minidoka, Tule Lake, Manzanar, Topaz, Granada, Heart Mountain, Poston, Gila River, Rohwer, Jerome
  • Losses = $400 million in property
  • Wanted to disprove accusation of disloyalty
invasion of italy
Invasion of Italy
  • Attack on Sicily (Mid 1943)
      • Led by Gen. Eisenhower
      • ~40,000 GERMS and 70,000 ITS forces to flee
  • Mussolini’s Downfall
      • July 25, 1943 King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini; has him arrested (later assassinated)
      • Fascist party dissolved
      • Hitler defends Italy and Mussolini in the North
  • Allied forces fight up the peninsula and take Naples, Rome, and Florence.
  • Italy surrenders on June 4, 1944
d day
D-Day
  • Operation Overlord - Allied invasion to win back France
  • June 6, 1944 = D-Day
  • Allied Expeditionary Force led by Eisenhower
  • Tremendous Allied Power:
      • 3 million men
      • 16 million tons of weapons/supplies
      • 9,000 boats
      • 11,000 aircraft
d day cont
D-Day cont…
  • Eisenhower’s men cross the English Channel and land at Normandy Beach
      • Bombers, paratroopers
      • Reclaim Paris on Aug 25
  • Continues for months
      • Allies win back Fr, Bel, and the Neths.
      • Germans launch counterattack but are defeated at the Battle of the Bulge
the pacific war
The Pacific War
  • At 1st, JAP seen as liberators, but were soon hated for killing civilians and taking land.
  • Victories:
      • Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)
      • Battle of Midway (June 1942); JAP navy defeated
      • Guadalcanal (Aug 1942)
        • Allies, led by Douglas MacArthur, led land, sea, and air battle
        • After 6 months, won 1st of “island hopping” campaigns
  • By Nov 1943 JAPs resort to kamikaze tactics
victory over germany
Victory Over Germany
  • Battle of the Bulge (Dec 6, 1944 – Jan 15, 1945)
      • German offensive to put a “bulge” in the Allied advance in Belgium
      • Allies stop at the Rhine River
      • Allied use air attacks on German cities – kill 100,000s
  • Soviets move in from East and met US troops at Berlin – late April 1945
  • May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders
  • May 8, 1945 = V-E Day
      • Partisans in IT kill Mussolini
      • Hitler Committed suicide
yalta and potsdam
Yalta and Potsdam
  • Early 1945 FDR, Churchill, and Stall met at Yalta to discuss postwar Europe
      • US, GB, FR, USSR, and CHI = United Nations
      • Divide GERM, along with Berlin into 4 zones
      • Soviet-occupied regions of E. EURO would hold free elections
      • USSR would get E. Poland
      • Poland would get part of Germany
      • Stalin promised to declare war on JAP to end war
      • USSR would get 3 islands in the N. Pacific
  • Later 1945, meet at Potsdam in Germ
      • Harry S. Truman replaced FDR, Clemet Attlee replaced Churchill
      • Results: Ultimatum to Japan; new tensions…
victory over japan
Victory Over Japan
  • By end of ‘44, Allied victory clear but JAP wouldn’t surrender
  • JAP rejected ultimatum in July ‘45
  • Truman decided to use the Atomic Bomb
      • End quickly
      • Avoid enormous loss of life with invasion
      • Intimidate USSR
slide71

Two bombs

      • Hiroshima –Aug 6, 1945
      • Nagasaki – Aug 9, 1945
  • Effects
      • 200,000 JAP die, more later b/c of radioactivity
      • Aug 14, 1945 JAP surrender
  • V-J Day = Sept 2, 1945
  • WWII is over
results
Results
  • Expensive
  • Millions homeless in Europe
  • Japan – new constitution, more democratic
  • Germany divided
  • US and USSR became main world powers
slide73

USSR dominates E EURO

  • UN formed
  • Holocaust
  • Loss of Human Life
      • Over 55 million died – 30 mil were civilians
          • USSR = 22 mil
          • GERM = 8 mil
          • JAP = 2 mill
          • US = 300,000
ad