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African Independence

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African Independence. X. By 1900 only 2 African Nations remained independent. Ethiopia Liberia. X. X. Roots of Independence Movement. Desire for freedom never abandoned Post WW1 &WW2 movements American Civil Rights Movement Nasser & Arab Nationalism. Traditional Colony

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roots of independence movement


Roots of Independence Movement
  • Desire for freedom never abandoned
  • Post WW1 &WW2 movements
  • American Civil Rights Movement
  • Nasser & Arab Nationalism
struggle for independence
Traditional Colony

Colonial Government

Export Based Economy

European Settled Colony

Colonial Government

Export Based Economy

White Minority Rule

Legalized Discrimination

Struggle for Independence
ghana becomes independent
Ghana Becomes Independent
  • 1957
  • Lead by Kwame Nkrumah
  • 1st Colony to Achieve Independence
  • Avoids Tribal Conflicts

Kwame Nkrumah


Nkrumah & WEB de Bois work on Pan-African Movement

  • Nhrumah founded the OAU--Organization of African Unity
  • worked to promote African economic independence
rebellion in kenya
Rebellion in Kenya
  • British colony of Kenya heavily settled by White farmers
  • Took land from Kikuyu and Masai people
mau mau rebellion
Mau Mau Rebellion
  • Mau Mau called themselves the Land & Freedom Party
  • protested for Independence
  • mass arrests
jomo kenyatta
Jomo Kenyatta
  • Kikuyu leader
  • arrested for “terrorism”
  • imprisoned for 8 years
  • became President of Kenya
jomo kenyatta1
Jomo Kenyatta
  • Kenya becomes strongest democracy in Africa
  • Kenyatta made Kenya an economic success
  • He stays in power too long = corruption & abuse
ending apartheid in south africa
Ending Apartheid in South Africa
  • African National Congress
  • Political Party
  • began fight against Apartheid
  • Non-white population not allowed to live in white cities
  • Forced them to work long distances from where their families could live
nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • Leader of ANC
  • arrested and jailed for 28 years
  • 120 ANC leaders were jailed
the years of struggle
The Years of Struggle
  • 1960: Sharpeville Massacre
        • Stay at Home Campaign
  • 1976: Soweto Uprising
steve biko
Steve Biko
  • Biko organized student protests against Apartheid
  • banned person
  • Smuggled his writings out
  • beaten to death by police
bishop desmond tutu
Bishop Desmond Tutu
  • Anglican minister who led international protest against Apartheid
  • South Africa sanctioned
impact of sanctions
Impact of Sanctions
  • Worldwide Protest against Apartheid
  • Ban on Trade & Banking
  • Financial Crisis in South Africa
f w de klerk nelson mandela
F.W. de Klerk & Nelson Mandela
  • De Klerk, white prime minister
  • negotiated with Mandela
  • released him from Prison
  • made agreement for free elections with all South African’s allowed to vote
south african independence
South African Independence
  • 1994: first free elections
  • Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa
  • 1994 to present: South Africans work to create economic equality
  • tribunal: trials for criminal acts under Apartheid
problems faced by independent africa
Problems Faced By Independent Africa
  • Debt from Colonial Period
  • Pressure from World Bank to grow colonial export crop to pay off debt.
  • Ethnic conflict
  • Health Issues
    • Clean Water
    • High Infant Mortality Rate
    • Aids