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“African Independence”. Role : Served w/allies (colonial powers) Served as front line troops Served in auxiliary roles Only saw action in Africa. Africans in WWI. WWI Impact on Africa : Africans who served return to villages with new ideas about freedoms

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Africans in wwi

  • Role:

  • Served w/allies (colonial powers)

  • Served as front line troops

  • Served in auxiliary roles

  • Only saw action in Africa

Africans in WWI

  • WWI Impact on Africa:

  • Africans who served return to villages

  • with new ideas about freedoms

  • Western ideas taught in African schools

  • Africans organize nationalist groups


Africans in wwii

  • Role:

  • Served as front line troops and in

  • auxiliary roles

  • Provided resources to the Allies

  • Saw action in Middle East, Italy, Burma,

  • Italy, and North and East Africa

Africans in WWII

  • WWI Impact on Africa:

  • Turning Point in African History!!!!!

  • Post-war: Africans no longer satisfied

  • to remain under colonial control

  • Wave of nationalism seeps across Africa


African nationalism

Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation or culture

African Nationalism

Pan-Africanism: A movement, founded around 1900, to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples


The british colonies

  • Background:

  • First colony to gain independence

  • Colonial name: The Gold Coast

The British Colonies

Ghana

  • Leader(s):

  • Kwame Nkrumah: nationalist &

  • independence leader

  • Process:

  • Use civil disobedience

  • 1948 riots in Accra = British reforms

  • Convention People’s Party created

  • 1951 British allow free elections

  • = CPP wins majority

  • 1957 British grant independence


The british colonies1

  • Background:

  • Inspired by Ghana’s independence

  • Colonial name: British East Africa

The British Colonies

  • Leader(s):

  • Jomo Kenyatta: independence

  • leader/kikuyu

  • Kikuyu: largest ethnic group

  • Mau Mau: Kikuyu guerilla group

Kenya

  • Process:

  • 1950’s British allow role in govt.

  • whites oppose = loose land/crops

  • Mau Mau Rebellion: violent rebellion

  • against British

  • 1963 Kikuyu win elections and

  • declare independence


The british colonies2

  • Background:

  • Colonial name: British Central Africa

  • 1953 Federation of Rhodesia &

  • Nyasaland created (multiracial)

  • Leader(s):

  • Robert Mugabe: African leader

  • in civil war; 1st prime minister

The British Colonies

  • Process:

  • 1963 African majority

  • votes to withdraw

  • 1964 Zambia & Malawi

  • created

  • 1965 Southern Rhodesia

  • breaks away = civil war

  • (whites vs. Africans)

  • 1979 elections held

  • 1980 Mugabe leader

  • & land renamed Zimbabwe

Malawi

Zambia

Zimbabwe


The british colonies3

  • Background:

  • Igbo people ruled from 10th C. to

  • 1911 when British took over

  • 1914 divided south (wealthy) &

  • north (poor)

  • 1936 slavery outlawed in north

The British Colonies

Nigeria

  • Process:

  • 1960 British grant them

  • independence

  • 1966-1970 Nigerian Civil War

  • 1970-1979 Military rule = oil boom

  • 1979-1999 Democracy to Military

  • rule (back and forth)

  • Leader(s):

  • Nnamdi Azikiwe: first president


The french colonies

  • Background:

  • French Goal: integrate African

  • colonies into post-WWII French

  • Union

  • Colonial name: French West Africa

The French Colonies

Senegal

Guinea

Cote D’Ivoire

  • Leader(s):

  • Sekou Toure: independence

  • leader of Guinea

  • Charles de Gaulle: French leader

  • Process:

  • Nationalist parties form

  • 1958 French ultimatum = Join

  • French Union or Independence

  • 1958 Guinea breaks away

  • 1960 Senegal & Ivory Coast

  • granted independence


The french colonies1

Algeria

  • Background:

  • French colony since 1800’s

The French Colonies

  • Leader(s):

  • Ahmed Ben Bella: FLN leader and

  • 1st president

  • Charles de Gaulle: French leader

  • Process:

  • National Liberation Front (FLN)

  • demands independence

  • 1954 Algerian War of Independence

  • 1958 de Gaulle offers 3 options

  • 1962 France grants independence


The belgian colonies

  • Background:

  • Congo rich in resources & minerals

  • Congolese people are tribal =

  • WWII brought unity

  • Leader(s):

  • Patrice Lumumba: independence

  • leader & 1st prime minister

  • Joseph Mobutu: military leader &

  • dictator; seizes power after civil war

The Belgian Colonies

Congo

  • Process:

  • 1955 Belgium sets 30 year timetable

  • 1959 violent protests in capital

  • June 1960 gain independence

  • 1960-65 civil war = new govt. vs. military

  • 1965 Mobutu and military seize control

  • name changed to Zaire

  • 70’s-90’s poor economy

  • 1994 Rwandan genocide =

  • refugees & destabilization

  • Mobutu forced out & exiled

  • 1997 renamed Dem of Congo


The portuguese colonies

  • Background:

  • Post-WWII = Liberation Armies est.

  • Colonial Name: Portuguese Guinea,

  • West Africa, and East Africa

Guinea-

Bissau

The Portuguese Colonies

  • Leader(s):

  • Liberation Army: military units

  • created to fight for independence

Angola

  • Process:

  • 1950’s-70’s bloody revolts

  • = Portugal vs. Liberation Armies

  • 1974 coup in Portugal = colonial

  • withdrawal from Africa

  • Independent nations of Guinea-Bissau,

  • Angola, and Mozambique

Mozambique


South africa

  • Background:

  • 1795 British seize land (Dutch)

  • 1806 becomes a British colony

  • Boers settle in Orange Free State

  • and found Boer Republic

  • 1880 1st Boer War: Boers (Natives)

  • vs. British for mineral wealth

  • 1899 2nd Boer War

  • 1909 South Africa Act places all

  • areas under British control

  • 1931 South Africa granted

  • independence from Britain

  • Afrikaners = 75% of population

  • 13% of land & poor

  • Whites = 25% of population

  • 87% of land & wealthy

South Africa

South

Africa


  • Leader(s):

  • Nelson Mandela: ANC leader

  • and 1st African president of

  • South Africa

  • Steven Biko: anti-apartheid

  • leader in South Africa

  • Desmond Tutu: Anglican bishop

  • and anti-apartheid crusader

  • who preached non-violence

  • F.W. de Klerk: military leader &

  • dictator; seizes power after civil war

South

Africa


South africa1

  • Process:

  • Apartheid: legal racial segregation

  • in South Africa (1948)

  • African National Congress created;

  • political party against apartheid

  • 1961 South Africa becomes a republic

  • 1976 govt. crackdown against protests

  • 1980’s world leaders & nations place

  • sanctions on South Africa b/c apartheid

  • 1989 K.W. de Klerk becomes president;

  • makes reforms in South Africa

  • 1994 free elections held; Nelson

  • Mandela elected first black president

South Africa

South

Africa


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