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“African Independence”. Role : Served w/allies (colonial powers) Served as front line troops Served in auxiliary roles Only saw action in Africa. Africans in WWI. WWI Impact on Africa : Africans who served return to villages with new ideas about freedoms

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africans in wwi

Role:

  • Served w/allies (colonial powers)
  • Served as front line troops
  • Served in auxiliary roles
  • Only saw action in Africa

Africans in WWI

  • WWI Impact on Africa:
  • Africans who served return to villages
  • with new ideas about freedoms
  • Western ideas taught in African schools
  • Africans organize nationalist groups
africans in wwii

Role:

  • Served as front line troops and in
  • auxiliary roles
  • Provided resources to the Allies
  • Saw action in Middle East, Italy, Burma,
  • Italy, and North and East Africa

Africans in WWII

  • WWI Impact on Africa:
  • Turning Point in African History!!!!!
  • Post-war: Africans no longer satisfied
  • to remain under colonial control
  • Wave of nationalism seeps across Africa
african nationalism

Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation or culture

African Nationalism

Pan-Africanism: A movement, founded around 1900, to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples

the british colonies

Background:

  • First colony to gain independence
  • Colonial name: The Gold Coast

The British Colonies

Ghana

  • Leader(s):
  • Kwame Nkrumah: nationalist &
  • independence leader
  • Process:
  • Use civil disobedience
  • 1948 riots in Accra = British reforms
  • Convention People’s Party created
  • 1951 British allow free elections
  • = CPP wins majority
  • 1957 British grant independence
the british colonies1

Background:

  • Inspired by Ghana’s independence
  • Colonial name: British East Africa

The British Colonies

  • Leader(s):
  • Jomo Kenyatta: independence
  • leader/kikuyu
  • Kikuyu: largest ethnic group
  • Mau Mau: Kikuyu guerilla group

Kenya

  • Process:
  • 1950’s British allow role in govt.
  • whites oppose = loose land/crops
  • Mau Mau Rebellion: violent rebellion
  • against British
  • 1963 Kikuyu win elections and
  • declare independence
the british colonies2

Background:

  • Colonial name: British Central Africa
  • 1953 Federation of Rhodesia &
  • Nyasaland created (multiracial)
  • Leader(s):
  • Robert Mugabe: African leader
  • in civil war; 1st prime minister

The British Colonies

  • Process:
  • 1963 African majority
  • votes to withdraw
  • 1964 Zambia & Malawi
  • created
  • 1965 Southern Rhodesia
  • breaks away = civil war
  • (whites vs. Africans)
  • 1979 elections held
  • 1980 Mugabe leader
  • & land renamed Zimbabwe

Malawi

Zambia

Zimbabwe

the british colonies3

Background:

  • Igbo people ruled from 10th C. to
  • 1911 when British took over
  • 1914 divided south (wealthy) &
  • north (poor)
  • 1936 slavery outlawed in north

The British Colonies

Nigeria

  • Process:
  • 1960 British grant them
  • independence
  • 1966-1970 Nigerian Civil War
  • 1970-1979 Military rule = oil boom
  • 1979-1999 Democracy to Military
  • rule (back and forth)
  • Leader(s):
  • Nnamdi Azikiwe: first president
the french colonies

Background:

  • French Goal: integrate African
  • colonies into post-WWII French
  • Union
  • Colonial name: French West Africa

The French Colonies

Senegal

Guinea

Cote D’Ivoire

  • Leader(s):
  • Sekou Toure: independence
  • leader of Guinea
  • Charles de Gaulle: French leader
  • Process:
  • Nationalist parties form
  • 1958 French ultimatum = Join
  • French Union or Independence
  • 1958 Guinea breaks away
  • 1960 Senegal & Ivory Coast
  • granted independence
the french colonies1

Algeria

  • Background:
  • French colony since 1800’s

The French Colonies

  • Leader(s):
  • Ahmed Ben Bella: FLN leader and
  • 1st president
  • Charles de Gaulle: French leader
  • Process:
  • National Liberation Front (FLN)
  • demands independence
  • 1954 Algerian War of Independence
  • 1958 de Gaulle offers 3 options
  • 1962 France grants independence
the belgian colonies

Background:

  • Congo rich in resources & minerals
  • Congolese people are tribal =
  • WWII brought unity
  • Leader(s):
  • Patrice Lumumba: independence
  • leader & 1st prime minister
  • Joseph Mobutu: military leader &
  • dictator; seizes power after civil war

The Belgian Colonies

Congo

  • Process:
  • 1955 Belgium sets 30 year timetable
  • 1959 violent protests in capital
  • June 1960 gain independence
  • 1960-65 civil war = new govt. vs. military
  • 1965 Mobutu and military seize control
  • name changed to Zaire
  • 70’s-90’s poor economy
  • 1994 Rwandan genocide =
  • refugees & destabilization
  • Mobutu forced out & exiled
  • 1997 renamed Dem of Congo
the portuguese colonies

Background:

  • Post-WWII = Liberation Armies est.
  • Colonial Name: Portuguese Guinea,
  • West Africa, and East Africa

Guinea-

Bissau

The Portuguese Colonies

  • Leader(s):
  • Liberation Army: military units
  • created to fight for independence

Angola

  • Process:
  • 1950’s-70’s bloody revolts
  • = Portugal vs. Liberation Armies
  • 1974 coup in Portugal = colonial
  • withdrawal from Africa
  • Independent nations of Guinea-Bissau,
  • Angola, and Mozambique

Mozambique

south africa

Background:

  • 1795 British seize land (Dutch)
  • 1806 becomes a British colony
  • Boers settle in Orange Free State
  • and found Boer Republic
  • 1880 1st Boer War: Boers (Natives)
  • vs. British for mineral wealth
  • 1899 2nd Boer War
  • 1909 South Africa Act places all
  • areas under British control
  • 1931 South Africa granted
  • independence from Britain
  • Afrikaners = 75% of population
  • 13% of land & poor
  • Whites = 25% of population
  • 87% of land & wealthy

South Africa

South

Africa

slide14

Leader(s):

  • Nelson Mandela: ANC leader
  • and 1st African president of
  • South Africa
  • Steven Biko: anti-apartheid
  • leader in South Africa
  • Desmond Tutu: Anglican bishop
  • and anti-apartheid crusader
  • who preached non-violence
  • F.W. de Klerk: military leader &
  • dictator; seizes power after civil war

South

Africa

south africa1

Process:

  • Apartheid: legal racial segregation
  • in South Africa (1948)
  • African National Congress created;
  • political party against apartheid
  • 1961 South Africa becomes a republic
  • 1976 govt. crackdown against protests
  • 1980’s world leaders & nations place
  • sanctions on South Africa b/c apartheid
  • 1989 K.W. de Klerk becomes president;
  • makes reforms in South Africa
  • 1994 free elections held; Nelson
  • Mandela elected first black president

South Africa

South

Africa

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