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Morphology. Word formation and structure Morpheme: free, bound Affix: prefix, suffix, etc. Inflection Derivation Mental Lexicon. How do A and B differ?. A B table deactivation purple cats run loudly bright blackbird many careful of talking

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morphology
Morphology
  • Word formation and structure
  • Morpheme: free, bound
  • Affix: prefix, suffix, etc.
  • Inflection
  • Derivation
  • Mental Lexicon
how do a and b differ
How do A and B differ?
  • AB
  • table deactivation
  • purple cats
  • run loudly
  • bright blackbird
  • many careful
  • of talking
  • => B words are morphologically complex.
free morphemes
Free Morphemes
  • Can stand alone as words
  • table act
  • purple cat
  • run loud
  • bright black
  • many bird
  • of care
  • talk
bound morphemes cannot stand alone as words
Bound Morphemes (Cannot stand alone as words)
  • Prefix
  • de-activate, de-contaminate
  • un-happy, un-lucky
  • re-establish, re-assure
  • dis-own, dis-member
slide5
Suffix
  • cat-s, universitie-s
  • excite-ment, amaze-ment
  • burglar-ize, steril-ize
  • care-ful, will-ful
  • loud-ly, nice-ly, angri-ly
  • round-er, tall-er
  • talk-ing, sleep-ing
derivation vs inflection
Derivation vs. Inflection
  • Derivation creates new words.
  • => Can change category and/or meaning
  • Inflection produces grammatical variants of the same word.
  • => Never changes category or meaning
inflection
Inflection
  • cat (N) cats (N)
  • talk (V) talked (V)
  • big (Adj) bigger (Adj)
inflection only changes grammatical form
Inflection only changes grammatical form.
  • Number (N): cat/cats decision/decisions
  • Case (N): Jane/Jane’s Mark/Mark’s
  • Tense (V): shout/shouted/shouting
  • Agreement (V): They run./(S)he runs.
derivation
Derivation
  • Category Change
  • act (V) => active (Adj)
  • amaze (V) => amazement (N)
  • sterile (Adj) => sterilize (V
  • care (N) => careful (Adj)
  • loud (Adj) => loudly (Adv)
slide10
Derivation can also change meaning.
  • accept + able
  • read + er
  • instrument + al
derivation takes place before inflection
Derivation takes place before inflection.
  • act+iv+ate+d
  • *act+ed+iv+ate
  • compart+ment+al+ize+d
  • compart+ment+al+iz+ation
  • *compart+ment+al+ize+d+ation
mental lexicon
Mental Lexicon
  • Morphemes and word formation processes are part of the mental lexicon.
  • Derived words are stored in the mental lexicon.
creative word formation
Creative Word Formation
  • Possible because we have a mental lexicon.
  • shush
  • shush-er
  • shush-ee
  • un-shush-able
slide14
-er: V=>N
    • (N refers to the agent of V)
  • -ee: V=>N
    • (N refers to the patient of V)
  • -able: V=>Adj
    • (Adj expresses the possibility of V)
  • un-: Adj1=>Adj2
    • (Adj2 expresses the opposite of Adj1)
more new words
More New Words
  • bogosity:
  • => degree to which something is bogus
  • bogos + -ity
  • -ity: Adj=>N
    • (N expresses state or degree of Adj)
    • clarity, agility, ability
even more creative
Even More Creative
  • ambimoustrous:
  • => capable of operating a mouse with either hand
  • ambi- + mouse(tr) + -ous
  • On analogy with ambidextrous
  • ambi + dexter + ous
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