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Morphology. Morphology is the field within linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. a morpheme. the smallest unit of grammatical analysis. be identifiable from one word to another and Contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word. MORPHEMES. inflectional

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Morphology

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Morphology is thefield within linguistics that studies the internal structure of words.

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a morpheme

  • the smallest unit of grammatical analysis.

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be identifiable from one word to another

and

Contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word.

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  • inflectional

    work – work(-s)

    work – work (-ed)

  • paradigm

  • derivational

read + -er

un- + tie

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  • We talk about so called word classes , primary grammatical categories,parts of speech or lexical categories:

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  • The lexicon (vocabulary) a shared base. of language - much higher than a hundred thousand.

  • It is convenient not to study individual items but to group certain items into classes sharing certain features, and examine them together

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  • conversion a shared base. (or zero derivation)

  • word passing from one word class to another (or several others) without taking any affix

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  • (- s ), (- ed),(-er), a shared base. are attached to words to indicate their grammatical functions, for example number, tense, degree, without involving a full semantic change (i.e. a change in meaning).

  • i n f l e x i o n a l morphemes.

  • p a r a d i g m

  • Inflectionally related word forms are the forms of the same word

  • A paradigm is the complete set of related word-forms associated with a given lexeme

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LEXEME a shared base. ?

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  • PERFORM a shared base.

  • This pianist performs in the local hall every week.

  • Mary told us that this pianist performed in the local hall every week.

  • These pianists perform in the local hall every week.

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  • PERFORM a shared base. = LEXEME=an abstract kind of word of which the word forms are all inflectional variants

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  • TELL a shared base. is a lexeme of told (past tense of tell )

  • PIANIST is a lexeme of PIANISTS (plural of pianist)

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  • inflectional rules a shared base. - relate different forms of the same lexeme

  • word-formation - relate two different lexemes.

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  • A a shared base. compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme.

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  • COMPOUND VERBS: a shared base.

  • COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

  • COMPOUND NOUNS

  • HEADED AND HEADLESS COMPOUNDS

  • BLENDS AND ACRONYMS

  • COMPOUNDS CONTAINING BOUND COMBINING FORMS

  • PHRASAL WORDS

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  • VERB_VERB (VV a shared base. )

  • stir-fry, freeze-dry

  • NOUN –VERB (NV)

  • hand-wash, air-condition , steam-clean

  • ADJECITVE-VERB (AV)

  • dry-clean, whitewash

  • PREPOSITION-VERB (PV)

    underestimate, outrun, overcook

  • ADVERB-VERB (Ad-V)

  • downsize, upgrade

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  • Hyphenation a shared base.

  • Unhyphenated,solid -compound verbs with single-syllable modifiers

  • overhang

  • hyphenated - longer modifiers

  • Air-condition

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  • COMPOUND ADJECTIVES a shared base.

  • are constructed in a very similar way to the compound nouns

  • a modifier of a noun

  • It consists of two or more morphemes of which the left-hand component limits or changes the modification of the right-hand one

  • "the dark-green dress":dark limits the green that modifies dress.

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  • NOUN-ADJECTIVE (NA) a shared base.

    sky-high, coal-black, oil-rich

  • ADJECTIVE-ADJECTIVE (AA)

    grey-green, red-hot

  • PREPOSITION-ADJECTIVE (PA)

    underfull, overactive

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  • VA a shared base. structure, corresponding to the VV verbs would resemble hypothetical „sing-happy“ (happy enough to sing),

  • „fail-safe“ (designed to return to a safe condition if it fails or goes wrong).

  • They scarcely exist, even though it is easy enough to find plausible meanings for them.

  • This reflects the relative reluctance of verbs to participate in compounding generally in English.

  • All the compounds here are again right – headed.

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  • Solid compound adjectives a shared base.

  • earsplitting, eyecatching, and downtown. (AmE)

  • ear-splitting, eye-catching (BrE)

  • Numbers that are spelled out and havethe suffix-fold added: "fifteenfold", "sixfold".

  • Points of the compass:

  • northwest, northwester, northwesterly,northwestwards, but not North-West Frontier.

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  • Hyphenated compound adjectives a shared base.

  • A compound adjective is hyphenated if the hyphen helps the reader differentiate a compound adjective from two adjacent adjectives that each independently modify the noun.

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  • "acetic acid solution": a bitter a shared base. solution producing vinegar or acetic acid (acetic + acid + solution)

  • "acetic-acid solution": a solution of acetic acid

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  • Hyphenated compound adjectives may have been formed originally by anadjective preceding a noun:

  • Round table" → "round-table discussion"

  • "Blue sky" → "blue-sky law"

  • "Red light" → "red-light district"

  • "Four wheels" → "four-wheel drive" (the singular, not the plural, is used)

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  • Others may have originated with a originally by verb preceding an adjective or adverb:

  • "Feel good" → "feel-good factor"

  • "Buy now, pay later" → "buy-now pay-later purchase"

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  • others are created with an original originally by verb preceding a preposition.

  • "Stick on" → "stick-on label"

  • "Walk on" → "walk-on part"

  • "Stand by" → "stand-by fare"

  • "Roll on, roll off" → "roll-on roll-off ferry"

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  • A noun, adjective, or adverb originally by preceding a present participle:

    • "an awe-inspiring personality"

    • "a long-lasting affair"

    • "a far-reaching decision

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  • A numeric originally by with the affix -fold has a hyphen(15-fold), but when spelled out takes a solid construction (fifteenfold).

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  • Numbers, originally by spelled out or numeric, with added -odd: sixteen-odd, 70-odd.

  • Compound adjectives with high- or low-: "high-level discussion", "low-price markup".

  • Colours in compounds:

    • "a dark-blue sweater"

    • "a reddish-orange dress".

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  • Fractions originally by as modifiers are hyphenated: "five-eighths inches", but not in "a thirty-three thousandth part".

  • Fractions used as nouns have no hyphens: "I ate only one third of the pie."

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  • Comparatives and superlatives originally by in compound adjectives also take hyphens:

    • "the highest-placed competitor"

    • "a shorter-term loan"

  • However, a construction with mostis not hyphenated:

    • "the most respected member".

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  • Where there is no risk of ambiguity: hyphenated:

    • "a Sunday morning walk"

  • Left-hand components of a compound adjective that end in -ly that modify right-hand components that are past participles (ending in -ed):

    • "a hotly disputed subject"

    • "a greatly improved scheme"

    • "a distantly related celebrity"

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  • Compound adjectives that include hyphenated:comparatives and superlatives with more, most, less or least:

    • "a more recent development"

    • "the most respected member"

    • "a less opportune moment"

    • "the least expected event"

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  • Verb- noun (VN): front of adjectives: swearword, drophammer, playtime

  • Noun-noun (NN): hairnet, mosquito net, butterfly net, hair restorer

  • Adjective-noun (AN): blackboard, greenstone, faintheart

  • Preposition – noun (PN): in-group, outpost, overcoat

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  • If we try to think of more examples for the four types, we will probably find the task easiest for the NN type.

  • In fact, almost any pair of nouns can be juxtaposed in English so as to form a compound or a phrase – provided that there is something that this compound or phrase could plausibly mean.

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  • C will probably find the task easiest oncatenating words without case markers

  • compounds - arbitrarily long.

  • Short compounds- in three different ways

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  • solid will probably find the task easiest or closed:housewife,lawsuit, wallpaper, etc.

  • hyphenatedform:

  • compounds that contain affixes

    house-build(er),single-mind(ed)(ness),

  • adjective-adjective compounds

    blue-green

  • verb-verb compounds,

    freeze-dry

  • compounds that contain articles,

    mother-of-pearl

    salt-and-pepper

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  • open will probably find the task easiest or spaced form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words, such as distance learning, player piano, lawn tennis, etc.

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  • container ship will probably find the task easiest /container-ship/containership

  • and

  • particle board/particle-board/particleboard.

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h will probably find the task easiest airnet

mosquito net

butterfly net

hair restorer

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  • restorer will probably find the task easiest in hair restorer is derived from a verb (restore).

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  • These expected or required nominal concomitants to a verb are called its arguments.

  • If aNN compound is derived from a verb, the most natural way to interpret the whole compound is quite precise, the first element expresses the object argument of the verb (that is , the person or thing that undergoes the action).

  • For example, an X-restorer, whatever X is, something or someone that restores X.

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  • NN compound wish-fulfilment. like hairnet or mosquitonet, in which the right-hand noun is not derived from a verb and whose interpretation is not precisely predictable on pure linguistic basis - a primary or root compound.

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  • NN compound wish-fulfilment. like hair restorer or slum clearance, in which the first element is interpreted as the object of the verb contained within the second - a secondary or verbal compound (synthetic compound)

  • Secondary compounds are certainly right-headed

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  • faintheart wish-fulfilment.- headless -its status as a noun is not determined by either of its components.

  • Headless AN compoundsloudmouth,redshank (a kind of a bird that has red legs)

  • headless NN compoundsstickleback( a kind of fish with spines on its back), sabretooth.

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  • A few wish-fulfilment.VN-compound nouns resemble secondary compounds in that the noun at the right is interpreted as the object of the verb.

  • Pickpocket, killjoy

  • Headless -a pickpocket is not a kind of pocket,

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  • Some nouns consist of a verb and a preposition or adverb: wish-fulfilment.

  • Take-off, sell-out, wrap-up, sit-in

  • As for headless adjectives, there are quite a number consisting of a preposition and a noun.

  • Overland, in-house, with profits, offshore, downmarket, upscale, underweight, over-budget

  • The adjectival status of these compounds can often be confirmed by their appropriateness in comparative contexts and with the modifier very:

  • They live in a very downmarket neighbourhood.

  • This year’s expenditure is even more over-budget than last year’s .

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  • smog reproduced only partially

  • talkathon

  • cheeseburger

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  • acronyms reproduced only partially

  • NATO (for North Atlantic Treaty Organization), ANZAC (for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps), RAM (random access memory), SCSI (pronounced scuzzy, small computer system interface), AIDS (aquired immune deficiency syndrome) .

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  • compounds that are made up of bound roots, known as combining forms.

  • Anthropology, sociology, cardiogram, electrocardiogram, retrograde, retrospect, plantigrade.

  • For most of these the meaning of the whole is clearly determinable from that of the parts.

  • For example: anthrop (o) – human plus –(o) logy, science or study, yields a word that means science or study of human beings and planti- (sole) (of foot) and –grade (walking) yields a word meaning walkin on the soles of the feet.

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  • Structurally this has the appearance of a noun phrase in which the head noun, jack, is modified by a prepositional phrase, in the box , exactly parallel to the phrases :

  • People in the street or (a) book on the shelf.

  • They form their plurals by suffixing –s not to the head noun (as in books on the shelf) but to the whole expression : book on the shelves, jack-in-the boxes,

  • They jumped up and down like jack-in-the boxes.

  • Though structurally a phrase, then, it behaves as a word.

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  • Let´s contrast it with another item which is at least as idiosyncratic in meaning and which has a superficially similar structure: brother – in – law.

  • A crucial difference is that brother-in-law forms its plural by affixing – s not to the whole expression but to the head noun:

  • Brothers –in –law

  • Despite its hypens, therefore, brother-in-law is not a word at all but a phrase.

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