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Morphology. A review. What is a morpheme? What is the difference between free and bound morphemes? What is a root morpheme? What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?. What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?. Morphemes

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morphology

Morphology

A review

slide2

What is a morpheme?

  • What is the difference between free and bound morphemes?
  • What is a root morpheme?
  • What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?
what are the building blocks in the formation of complex words
What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?
  • Morphemes
    • The most elemental unit of a word
  • Morphology
    • Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation
affixes
Affixes
  • Prefixes
  • Prefixes are added to the beginning
  • Suffixes
  • Suffixes are added to the end
  • Form a word with 2 suffixes
  • Form a word with 1 Prefix and 2 Suffixes
mini exercise
Mini exercise

For each of the words below, determine the number of morphemes it has.

Sister sister’s sisters happy blister

unhappy the teacher carefully

free morphemes vs bound morphemes
Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes
    • Free morphemes can be used alone
    • Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes
  • Free morpheme in a complex word:

Deactivation

de+act+iv+at+ion

  • Act: 1 a: the doing of a thing (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
free morphemes vs bound morphemes1
Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes
  • Quick exercise

For each morpheme below, determine whether it’s free or bound.

Pre pro ive y worth with

un ion re duct ed able

lexical morphemes vs grammatical morphemes
Lexical morphemes vs. grammatical morphemes
  • Lexical morpheme
    • Have a ‘real world’ meaning
    • Also called content morpheme
  • Grammatical morpheme
    • Change the form of a word but don’t have ‘real word’ meaning
  • Test: find a synonym for the morpheme
    • If you can find one, it’s a lexical morpheme
  • What is the difference between free &bound morphemes and lexical & grammatical morphemes?
root morphemes vs affix morphemes
Root morphemes vs. Affix morphemes
  • What’s a root morpheme?

Note: -roots tend to be free and

lexical

-affixes tend to be bound and

grammatical

exceptions
Exceptions
  • Quick exercise
  • Analyze the word: “production”
  • How many morphemes does it have?
  • Which morpheme is the stem? Which ones are affixes?
  • Is the stem free and lexical?

Conclusion: ‘duct’ is a bound root morpheme

root morphemes
Root morphemes
  • Quick exercise
      • Identify the roots of the following words

kingdom interplanetary dimensional margins paintball children

inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes
Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes
  • What are inflectional affixes?
    • Do not create new words when they attach to existing words
    • They change the form of that word to indicate grammatical meaning
inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes1
Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes
  • Plural –s, -es(noun)
  • Possessive –’s, s’ (noun)
  • Comparative –er (adj.)
  • Superlative –est (adj.)
  • 3rd person singular –s (verb)
  • Past tense –ed (verb)
  • Past participle –ed, -en
  • Present participle -ing
  • Pim likes to eat peach-es
  • Pim’s grades are great
  • Pim is smart-er than Boss
  • Pim is the quick-est of all
  • Pim like-s to study
  • Pimstudi-ed hard for the quiz
  • Pim hasn’t fail-ed a test yet.
  • Pim has been study-ingfor 3 hours

Inflectional morpheme

Example

inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes2
Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes
  • Derivational Affixes
    • Create new (or derive) new words in two ways
    • Some derivational morphemes change the content meaning but not grammatical meaning
    • Others don’t significantly change the meaning but the grammatical meaning.
  • Unlike inflectional affixes, derivational affixes can be both, prefixes or suffixes in English.
derivational affixes
Derivational affixes

The number of derivational affixes in English is far greater than inflectional affixes

derivational affixes1
Derivational affixes

Quick exercise

  • Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

retake hopeless

undress tension

disembark cheerful

What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?

derivational affixes2
Derivational affixes

Quick exercise

  • Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

rewrite hopeless

unclear creation

unhappy helpful

What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?

overview of all discussed distinctions
Overview of all discussed distinctions

Morphemes

bound

free

lexical

-bound roots

grammatical

lexical

inflectional

-eight suffixes

derivational

prefixes

ex:-un

suffixes

ex: -ness

word creation in english neologism
Word creation in English (Neologism)
  • Affixing
    • Affixing and derivation create new words in English
    • X number of affixes +Y number of words (stems)
    • Example: ‘un-’
  • Functional shift
    • Words changing word class
    • Example: impact (noun and verb)

Quick exercise:

Transition reference proposition help

hope

word creation in english neologism1
Word creation in English (Neologism)
  • Coined words
    • Speakers continually create new words.

Consider the word ‘dissing’ in the sentence:

Are you dissing me?

1. What does dissing mean?

2. What part of speech does it belong to? (Defend your answer on a morphological basis)

word creation in english neologism2
Word creation in English (Neologism)
  • Acronyms
    • Common acronyms that turned into words:
    • Laser, radar, scuba, MUIC
  • Where do they derive from?
  • Light Amplification (by) Stimulated Emission (of) Radiation
  • RAdioDetecting And Ranging
word creation in english neologism3
Word creation in English (Neologism)
  • Borrowing
  • Speakers of English aggressively borrow from other languages
    • Kindergarten (German)
    • Croissant (French)
    • Sushi (Japanese)
    • Macho (???)
    • List 3 words in Thai that are borrowed from English?
word creation in english neologism4
Word creation in English (Neologism)
  • Blending
    • Mixing words
  • Quick exercise: from what words are the following blends mixed?

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