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Morphology. A review. What is a morpheme? What is the difference between free and bound morphemes? What is a root morpheme? What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?. What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?. Morphemes

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Morphology

Morphology

A review


  • What is a morpheme?

  • What is the difference between free and bound morphemes?

  • What is a root morpheme?

  • What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?


What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words
What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?

  • Morphemes

    • The most elemental unit of a word

  • Morphology

    • Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation


Affixes
Affixes words?

  • Prefixes

  • Prefixes are added to the beginning

  • Suffixes

  • Suffixes are added to the end

  • Form a word with 2 suffixes

  • Form a word with 1 Prefix and 2 Suffixes


Mini exercise
Mini exercise words?

For each of the words below, determine the number of morphemes it has.

Sister sister’s sisters happy blister

unhappy the teacher carefully


Free morphemes vs bound morphemes
Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes words?

  • Free morphemes can be used alone

  • Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes

  • Free morpheme in a complex word:

    Deactivation

    de+act+iv+at+ion

  • Act: 1 a: the doing of a thing (Merriam Webster Dictionary)


  • Free morphemes vs bound morphemes1
    Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes words?

    • Quick exercise

      For each morpheme below, determine whether it’s free or bound.

      Pre pro ive y worth with

      un ion re duct ed able


    Lexical morphemes vs grammatical morphemes
    Lexical morphemes vs. grammatical morphemes words?

    • Lexical morpheme

      • Have a ‘real world’ meaning

      • Also called content morpheme

    • Grammatical morpheme

      • Change the form of a word but don’t have ‘real word’ meaning

    • Test: find a synonym for the morpheme

      • If you can find one, it’s a lexical morpheme

    • What is the difference between free &bound morphemes and lexical & grammatical morphemes?


    Root morphemes vs affix morphemes
    Root morphemes vs. Affix morphemes words?

    • What’s a root morpheme?

    Note: -roots tend to be free and

    lexical

    -affixes tend to be bound and

    grammatical


    Exceptions
    Exceptions words?

    • Quick exercise

    • Analyze the word: “production”

    • How many morphemes does it have?

    • Which morpheme is the stem? Which ones are affixes?

    • Is the stem free and lexical?

    Conclusion: ‘duct’ is a bound root morpheme


    Root morphemes
    Root morphemes words?

    • Quick exercise

      • Identify the roots of the following words

        kingdom interplanetary dimensional margins paintball children


    Inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes
    Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes words?

    • What are inflectional affixes?

      • Do not create new words when they attach to existing words

      • They change the form of that word to indicate grammatical meaning


    Inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes1
    Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes words?

    • Plural –s, -es(noun)

    • Possessive –’s, s’ (noun)

    • Comparative –er (adj.)

    • Superlative –est (adj.)

    • 3rd person singular –s (verb)

    • Past tense –ed (verb)

    • Past participle –ed, -en

    • Present participle -ing

    • Pim likes to eat peach-es

    • Pim’s grades are great

    • Pim is smart-er than Boss

    • Pim is the quick-est of all

    • Pim like-s to study

    • Pimstudi-ed hard for the quiz

    • Pim hasn’t fail-ed a test yet.

    • Pim has been study-ingfor 3 hours

    Inflectional morpheme

    Example


    Inflectional affixes vs derivational affixes2
    Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes words?

    • Derivational Affixes

      • Create new (or derive) new words in two ways

      • Some derivational morphemes change the content meaning but not grammatical meaning

      • Others don’t significantly change the meaning but the grammatical meaning.

    • Unlike inflectional affixes, derivational affixes can be both, prefixes or suffixes in English.


    Derivational affixes
    Derivational affixes words?

    The number of derivational affixes in English is far greater than inflectional affixes


    Derivational affixes1
    Derivational affixes words?

    Quick exercise

    • Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

      retake hopeless

      undress tension

      disembark cheerful

    What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?


    Derivational affixes2
    Derivational affixes words?

    Quick exercise

    • Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

      rewrite hopeless

      unclear creation

      unhappy helpful

    What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?


    Overview of all discussed distinctions
    Overview of all discussed distinctions words?

    Morphemes

    bound

    free

    lexical

    -bound roots

    grammatical

    lexical

    inflectional

    -eight suffixes

    derivational

    prefixes

    ex:-un

    suffixes

    ex: -ness


    Word creation in english neologism
    Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

    • Affixing

      • Affixing and derivation create new words in English

      • X number of affixes +Y number of words (stems)

      • Example: ‘un-’

    • Functional shift

      • Words changing word class

      • Example: impact (noun and verb)

        Quick exercise:

        Transition reference proposition help

        hope


    Word creation in english neologism1
    Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

    • Coined words

      • Speakers continually create new words.

        Consider the word ‘dissing’ in the sentence:

        Are you dissing me?

        1. What does dissing mean?

        2. What part of speech does it belong to? (Defend your answer on a morphological basis)


    Word creation in english neologism2
    Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

    • Acronyms

      • Common acronyms that turned into words:

      • Laser, radar, scuba, MUIC

    • Where do they derive from?

    • Light Amplification (by) Stimulated Emission (of) Radiation

    • RAdioDetecting And Ranging


    Word creation in english neologism3
    Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

    • Borrowing

    • Speakers of English aggressively borrow from other languages

      • Kindergarten (German)

      • Croissant (French)

      • Sushi (Japanese)

      • Macho (???)

      • List 3 words in Thai that are borrowed from English?


    Word creation in english neologism4
    Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

    • Blending

      • Mixing words

    • Quick exercise: from what words are the following blends mixed?

      Motel Infomercial Edutainment

      Netiquette


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