Parrillo chapter 5
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Parrillo Chapter 5. Northern and Western Europeans. Sociological Perspective. The Colonial Period Reasons for each immigrant group coming to America: Economic Reasons Political Religious Reasons Encountered Native Americans

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Parrillo Chapter 5

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Parrillo chapter 5

ParrilloChapter 5

Northern and Western

Europeans


Sociological perspective

Sociological Perspective

  • The Colonial Period

  • Reasons for each immigrant group coming to America:

    • Economic Reasons

    • Political

    • Religious Reasons

  • Encountered Native Americans

    • Cultural differences on both sides resulted in xenophobic reactions


Sociological perspective cont

Sociological Perspective Cont.

  • European – Native American relations punctuated by:

    • Misunderstanding

    • Fear

    • Suspicion

    • Hostility

    • Exploitation

    • violence


Cultural diversity

Cultural Diversity

  • Parrillo: “ From the moment Europeans first landed on these shores, cultural differences existed”

  • [A Eurocentric point of view]

    • The indigenous population was already a diverse population with differences in:

      • Culture

      • Language

      • Religion

  • New Amsterdam


Religious intolerance

Religious Intolerance

  • Religious differences cause more problems than did nationality differences

  • Europeans were seeking a place of religious harmony

    • Brought with them their religious prejudices

    • Intolerant of others with different beliefs

  • Example: Expulsion of religious dissident Roger Williams from the Massachusetts colony


Religious intolerance cont

Religious Intolerance Cont.

  • Baptist the most persecuted in New England

    • Fines, … Beatings, … Whippings, … etc.

  • Baptists thrived in Philadelphia

  • The Massachusetts Charter extended “liberty of conscience” to all Christians except the “Papists” (Catholics)

  • Religious intolerance created wide cultural gulfs

    • Gary :Nash “Any attempt to portray the colonies as unified and homogeneous would be misguided.”


The early national period

The Early National Period

  • Anglo-Americans dominated American culture, economy, politics

    • A common language, history, and culture solidified by 1820

    • Included belief in Protestantism, individualism, and political democracy

  • U.S. Constitution drafted in 1789

    • A bedrock principle of “the separation of church and state”

  • Some religious tolerance, but Catholics and Jews were barred from running for office


The 1790 census

The 1790 Census

  • Anglo-Saxon Protestants were the dominant group

  • American society was both culturally and racially diverse (Table 5.1, p. 130)

  • English48%

  • African19%

  • German 7%

  • Scots 7%

  • Native American 2%


Early signs of nativist reactions

Early Signs of Nativist Reactions

  • During the post-Revolutionary period, a broad based antiforeign attitude

  • Jeffersonians and Federalists feared the other side would benefit from immigration

  • George Washington had reservations of immigrants (newcomers, strangers)

    • Quote, (p. 132)

  • Federalists believed the foreign immigrant population was the root of all evil in the U.S.


Nativist legislative action

Nativist Legislative Action

  • Federalists attempted to limit office holding to the native-born

  • Evidence of Xenophobia, … Ethnocentrism

  • 1798, …Alien and Sedition Acts

    • Concern of a war with France

  • Jefferson Elected President in 1800, … the acts were abrogated


Pre civil war period

Pre-Civil War Period

  • 1820 Census:

    • Excluded Native Americans

    • 9.6 Million Americans

    • 20% of the population was black

    • Remainder were mainly Northwestern Europeans

  • Between 1820 and 1860, … 5 million immigrants

    • Irish and Germans accounted for the greatest number, … Irish, 44 to 49% during this period


Structural conditions

Structural Conditions

  • Urban living conditions were substandard

  • Irish

    • Poverty stricken

    • Lived in squalid conditions

    • High disease and mortality rates

  • Quote (page 144)

    • “Typical of overcrowded cellars … “


Pre civil war xenophobia

Pre-Civil War Xenophobia

  • Xenophobia: Immigrants 1820 to 1860

  • Seen as a threat to American institutions

  • An imagined radical threat

  • An imagined Catholic threat

  • Antiforeign organizations, …“Native Americans”, … The Know Nothings”

  • Frequent mob action, burning, … assaulting, … murdering


The english

The English

  • First white ethnic group in New World

  • First two settlements:

    • Jamestown VA, … Southern aristocracy

    • Plymouth, … Yankee origins

  • Different purposes, …religions, … climates, … terrains

    • Developed different cultures


English departure

English Departure

  • Departure: The Pilgrims

  • Fled England for Holland

  • Experienced Culture Shock in Holland

    • “Heard a strange and uncouth language”

    • “Different manners and customs”

    • “Strange fashions and attires”


Resisting assimilation

Resisting Assimilation

  • Not all immigrants desire full assimilation

  • Many never become naturalized citizens

  • Do not intend to forsake their cultural heritage, … seek to preserve their heritage

  • Often children become assimilated

  • Pilgrims feared their children would become assimilated into Dutch culture

  • A factor in Pilgrim migration to New World


English influence

English Influence

  • Greatest English impact occurred during the Colonial period

  • 1790, 63% of U.S. population, … English descent, … nationality

  • Made a great impact on U.S culture

    • Language, … Law, … customs, … values

  • Seldom experience prejudice or discrimination

    • Relatively few ethnophaulisms for the English


English enfluence

English Enfluence

  • Many British found America less attractive than England

    • It failed to live up to their expectations

    • Read quotes pages 148-149

  • Between 1881 to 1889, more than 370,000 British returned to England

    • Found U. S. a “debased copy of their homeland

  • The Second Generation fit in, ..assimilated


The dutch

The Dutch

  • Two greatest periods of migration:

    • 1881 to 1930, about 1.6 million

    • 1941 to 1970, nearly 98,000

  • Had a significant impact on early American development

    • Settled in the present New York City area

  • Very little reason to immigrate to America

    • Few “Push” factors


The dutch cont

The Dutch Cont.

  • Pluralism: Dutch settlements were pluralistic, much like their homeland

    • Holland offered sanctuary to many groups

  • Maintained their culture, language for a long period (Quote)

    • Dutch endogamy and isolation

  • Many immigrated during 1880 to m1920

    • Did not encounter the ethnic antagonisms that Southeastern Europeans experienced


The french

The French

  • Three population segments:

    • Migrants from French Canada, who settled in New England

    • French Expelled from Nova Scotia in 1755 who settled in Louisiana, … Cajuns, …

    • The Huguenots, … came to America to escape religious persecution


French cont

French Cont.

  • The Huguenots: Protestants, … anxious to convert to the Anglican Church

    • Adopted English language

    • Assimilated as rapidly and possible

  • Changed their names, … Customs, … Lost their ethnic identity

  • The second generation experienced a marginal status

  • Lost their ethnoreligious status


French cont1

French Cont.

  • Francophobia; The XYZ Affair

  • Jeffersonians were French sympathizers

  • Federalists were anti-French

  • French officials demanded bribes for U.S diplomats to obtain desired agreements

  • To Federalists every Frenchman was a potential enemy

  • By 1801 the Republicans ended Federalist dominance, … the Louisiana purchace


French cont2

French Cont.

  • Pluralism

    • Have assimilated many groups

    • Examples: Germans, … Spanish

  • Loss of ethnic identity as a distinct culture

    • Television accelerated ethnogenesis

    • Increased Anglicization, … names, language

    • Education, … migration looking for jobs

  • An effort to retain French (Cajun) culture


Germans

Germans

  • Has supplied the greatest number of immigrants to the U.S.

    • 7.2 million since 1820

    • Today 58 million claim German ancestry

  • Early Reactions:

  • William Penn recruited Germans for the Pennsylvania colony

    • Large number, … different language, … customs, … religion


Germans cont

Germans Cont.

  • Early Reactions by “Americans”

  • Benjamin Franklin:

    • Quote on page 158

  • Franklin’s worries:

    • The duality of language

    • Clannishness

    • Their meager knowledge of English


Germans the second wave

Germans, The Second Wave

  • The second wave settled in the midwest

  • Preserved their heritage through schools, … churches, … newspapers, … language, … mutual-aid societies, … recreational activities

  • Some considered creating a German state

  • Other of creating a separate German country

  • Concentrated in “Germantown” communities


Second wave cont

Second Wave, Cont.

  • Increasing criticism:

    • Being clannish, … attempting to preserve their culture

  • World War I: became targets of harassment, business boycotts, … physical attacks, … vandalism of their property

  • Cultural Impact: German influence

    • American speech, … food, … drinking, … P. 160

  • German immigrant industrialists, … p. 161


The irish

The Irish

  • Prerevolutionary immigrants were Ulster Irish (the Scots-Irish)

    • Settled in New England at first

    • Clustered together preserving their culture

  • Irish Catholics fared poorly because of:

    • Religion, … peasant culture, … rebelliousness, … increasing numbers, … Anti-British

  • “Dublin Districts”, … overcrowded, … deplorable conditions, …

    • First immigrants to come in large numbers


Irish societal reaction

Irish, Societal Reaction

  • Native U.S. citizens blamed Irish for:

    • Their widespread poverty

    • Resented the heavy burden they placed on charitable institutions

  • Stereotyped the Irish as:

    • Prone to alcoholism, .. Brawling, … corruption, … and crime

  • Anti-Irish feeling linked to Anti-Catholic feeling and fears of “Popery”


Societal reaction cont

Societal Reaction Cont.

  • Strong social and job discrimination

    • NINA, … “No Irish Needs Apply”

  • Played a key role in U.S. industrial expansion

    • Canals, … Waterways, … Railroads, …

  • A Middleman minority


Irish response

Irish Response

  • Irish experience, a prototype of experiences of later immigrants

    • Hostile reception, … prejudice and discrimination

  • Irish actions and reactions

    • Alternately retreatist and aggressive

    • Small degree of intermarriage, … with other Catholics

    • Built parallel social institutions

    • Irish labor in low–status jobs


Irish response cont

Irish Response Cont.

  • The Molly Maguires

    • Secret terrorist group in conflict with mine owners

    • Movement ended with hanging of 20 men

  • Draft Riot of 1863 in New York City

    • 400 rioters were killed


The functionalist view

The Functionalist View

  • Immigrants generally highly desirable

  • Forge a civilization from a vast underdeveloped country

  • Economic opportunity

  • Religious freedom

  • Political Freedom

  • Unskilled built cities, canals, railroads

  • Entrepreneurial skills, craftsmanship to supply a growing nation


Functionalist view cont

Functionalist View Cont.

  • “Useless and withered plants”, … “have taken root and flourished”

  • Large numbers of immigrants, ... Dysfunctional, … could not absorb quickly

  • Immigrants generated prejudice and discrimination

  • In time with adjustments and education they became upwardly mobile

  • Finally acceptance and assimilation


The conflict view

The Conflict View

  • Dominance of English Americans

  • Influence, … language, customs, political principles

  • A propertied elite saw immigrants as “common” people and a threat to their power

    • Federalist and Nativists saw them as a threat

  • Immigrant Economic exploitation, … working under brutal conditions

    • Industrial expansion at their expense


Key terms

Anglo conformity

Assimilation

Discrimination

Ethnocentrism

Nativism

Pluralism

Prejudice

Upward mobility

Xenophobia

National period

Pre-Civil War Period

Push, Pull factors

Marginality

Key Terms


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