Chapter 5. Persons with Mental Retardation. AAMR Definitions. Since 1876 the American Association on Mental Retardation has revised its definition of mental retardation eleven times Revisions reflected change Terminology Classification Expectations.
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Persons with Mental Retardation
Binet (1857-1911) and Simon created 1st IQ ← test in 1905
Overall IQ and also verbal and performance IQs.
(WPPSI-III) Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Ages 2 ½ to 7 years, 3 months
(WISC-IV) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Ages 6 to 16 years, 11 months
(WAIS-III) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised
eye & vision impairments Hyper-extensible joints (double jointed)
elongated face Large testicles (evident after puberty)
Flat feet Low muscle tone
High arched palate Autism and autistic-like behavior
Prominent ears hand biting and hand-flapping
Mental Retardation Hyperactivity and short attention span
flattening of the back of the head
slanting of the eyelids
short stubby limbs
Figure 5.5 Figure Represents Percentage of Enrollment of Students with Mental Retardation During the 1999-2000 School Year
“ Although a functional curriculum is seen as appropriate for many individuals with mental retardation, in many ways it runs counter to the basic tenets of the philosophy of full inclusion with its emphasis on age-grade- appropriate placement.” (Garguilo)