Large Scale Integrated Circuits. A Little History. In 1942, in the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Engineering, John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert built a machine to compute artillery firing tables for the Amercian government. . A Little History.
Transistor - a tiny electrically operated switch, or gate, that can alternate between “on” and “off” many millions of times per secondMicrochips, Miniaturization, &MobilityFrom Vacuum Tubes to Transistors to Microchips
1940s vacuum tube towering over 1950s transistor
Dr. Forrester was director of MIT's Digital Computer Laboratory and was responsible for the design and construction of Whirlwind I, the first large scale, high-speed digital computer to go into complete operation. While working on computer technology, Dr. Forrester invented random-access, coincident-current magnetic storage, which was for many years the standard memory device for digital computers.
This invention , which is called magnetic core memory, involved the phenomenon that when current flows through a core, the core becomes magnetized even the current is removed. The introduction of this kind of memory makes computers smaller in size, faster to access data, and more powerful. It also was what today's memory technology was based on.
Wafer Fabrication Overview
4) Patterning MicromachinesGate region is formed
5) Layering MicromachinesGate oxide is grown
6) Patterning Micromachines
Contact holes are patterned into source/drain regions
7) Layering Micromachines
Conducting metal layer is deposited
8) Patterning Micromachines
Metal layer is patterned
9) Heat Treatment Micromachines
Metal is alloyed to layer
10) Layering Micromachines
Protective passivation layer is deposited
11) Patterning Micromachines
Passivation layer is removed over metal pads