Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 66

VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Respiratory Disease Control PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Respiratory Disease Control. Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University. General introduction. Endemic Pneumonia. App- continual outbreaks, chronic pleuropneumonia Sometimes other bacteria as well Enzootic Pneumonia

Download Presentation

VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Respiratory Disease Control

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

VDPAM 445Swine TopicsRespiratory Disease Control

Dr. Alex Ramirez

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

Iowa State University

General introduction

General introduction

Endemic pneumonia

Endemic Pneumonia

  • App- continual outbreaks, chronic pleuropneumonia

    • Sometimes other bacteria as well

  • Enzootic Pneumonia

    • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    • Pasteurella multocida

  • Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex

    • All of the above (especially M. hyo)

    • PRRSV

    • SIV

    • Others: PCV2, PRV, H. parasuis, S. suis,



  • Gross pathology: APP versus all others

    • APP & A. suis vs. others

  • Organism identification

    • Culture

    • FA

    • PCR

    • IHC: immunohistochemistry (with histopath)

      • Fixed tissue, easy sample preservation

  • Histopath

    • Prove disease, organism presence is insufficient

Question is this mycoplasma

Question: Is this mycoplasma?



  • Serology: serological profiling

    • Timing of infection but not necessarily timing of disease

  • Sampling issues

    • Tissue preservation in formalin

      • Buffered

      • Multiple sites

      • <1cm tissue thickness

    • Number of animals

      • Example on next slide

    • Sick (necropsy) versus healthy (slaughter checks)

Diagnostic sampling strategies

Diagnostic Sampling Strategies

  • Small numbers of pigs will result in missed diagnosis

    • PRDC case: 21 pigs submitted for necropsy

    • Pathology/microbiology:

      • No lesions =5Gastric ulcer = 2

      • PMWS = 5PRRSV = 2

      • SIV? = 1APP? = 3 (non-typeable)

      • P. mult. = 2Bordetella = 2

      • Strep suis = 1M. hyo = 8

  • Serology: M. hyo+, SIV+, PRRSV (late +)

  • Slaughter check: Low average percent pneumonia, a few pigs severe

Diagnostic considerations value of tests

Diagnostic Considerations: Value of Tests

  • Laboratory tests should fit with clinical observations

    • Pigs cough: Pursue rule-outs (M. hyo, influenza)

    • Pigs grow slowly without overt disease - diets/environment?

  • Specific versus non-specific tests

    • Necropsy and slaughter exams (disease severity)

    • Laboratory tests (agent identification)

    • Record analysis (rarely identifies a specific cause)

  • Documenting management activities

    • “Gum shoe” approach

      • One revealing observation is often worth more than 100 serological tests

      • SOP vs. Actual

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae1

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  • Primary cause of enzootic pneumonia

    • Most herds are infected except SPF herds

  • Transmission is via aerosol

    • Air is PCR positive

    • Difficult to prevent between herd spread

  • Disease often manifested in finishing

    • Organism very slow to grow (weeks)

    • A few get infected from sows  spreads slowly through nursery pigs

    • Lateral transmission from older pigs

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae2

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  • Diagnosis

    • Clinical signs: only cough 10 days after challenge

      • Severe sickness with infection of SPF herds?

      • Mild - minimal consequence in otherwise disease free pigs

    • Macroscopic lesions

      • Anterior-ventral consolidation

      • Not specific to M. hyo

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae3

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae4

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  • Diagnosis

    • Histopathology:

      • peribronchiolarlymphocytic cuffing

    • Organism ID

      • FA- need fresh tissue, approx. 50% sensitivity

      • Culture - slow grow, overgrowth by M. hyorhinis

      • PCR - “It’s everywhere”

      • IHC

    • Serology: several ELISA’s available

      • Vaccination will also induce titers that persist for a short time

Mycoplasma vaccination

Mycoplasma Vaccination

  • Second most common vaccine used in growing pigs

    • Common in population

    • Potentiator of other respiratory disease

  • Issues

    • Mandatory (?) in herds with continuous flow, multiple rooms within the same building, virulent PRRSV

    • One vs. two dose products

      • Use one dose in “controlled” situations or if labor is a big concern

      • Two doses will almost always be better

      • Start early (3weeks)

      • Product cost is usually equal

      • Many combine with PCV2 vaccination

Mycoplasma vaccination1

Mycoplasma Vaccination

  • Maternal antibody interference

    • Probably will not interfere with vaccine induced protection

    • No real reason to vaccinate sows pre-farrow

      • Only vaccinate gilts before entering herd

  • PRRS eradication  Mycoplasma eradication

    • Consider where pigs will be grown and finished

    • May still need to vaccinate pigs

M hyo treatment plan

M. hyo Treatment plan

  • Antibiotics?

    • Now

    • Earlier

    • Routes

      • Water

      • Feed

      • Injectable

  • Control other diseases

  • Vaccination

    • Other groups

    • Timing – watch for PRRS seroconversion

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae(APP)

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app1

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)

  • Cause of contagious pleuropneumonia

  • Transmission by close contact and short distance aerosols

  • Many pigs harbor organism in upper airways

    • Clinical disease occurs with environmental stress in many cases

      • Malfunctioning curtain controller  temperature fluctuation  organism gains entrance to lung  severe (bad), rapidly developing necrotizing and hemorrhagic pneumonia with pleuritis

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app2

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)

  • Clinical signs

    • Sudden death

    • Sudden onset of rapid, deep breathing

    • Minimal cough (not an airway irritant)

    • Fever initially or if mild-to-moderate; subnormal in severely affected pigs

    • Hemoptosis and blood from nostrils in agonal phase (euthanize if possible)

    • Mortality can reach 10% of barn in one day

    • Pigs quit eating AND DRINKING

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app3

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)

  • Post-mortem lesions

    • Necrotizing, hemorrhagic, usually multi-focal pneumonia

    • Pleuritis will be present if pig survives for at least 18 hours after challenge

    • Similar lesions can be seen with Actinobacillus suis

    • If APP  mass treatment via injection often indicated; other types of pneumonia treated less aggressively; can’t wait for test results to start therapy

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app4

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app5

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)

  • Diagnosis

    • Initially: clinical signs and gross pathology

    • Culture: isolation followed by capsular serotyping

      • Some relationship between capsular serotype and virulence: Type 1’s are worst; followed by 5’s

      • USA: 1, 5, 7 and 3 are most common (odd numbers)

      • Europe: 2 and 6 are most common

    • Serology

      • Complement fixation: recent infection

      • ELISA’s: capsule, endotoxin, cross-reactivity problems

      • Hemolysin neutralization: cross-reactions with A. suis

App vaccination

APP Vaccination

  • Most commercial vaccines are bacterins

    • Administer 2X at 2-4 week interval prior to finishing

    • Capsular serotypes must be matched

      • Use autogenous vaccines if:

        • Commercial vaccines don’t contain the correct serotype

        • May have within serotype heterogeneity

    • Marginally effective: lack ApX toxins which are the main virulence factors for causing disease

    • Side effect potential:

      • Injection site reactions

      • Fever, off-feed, reduced daily gain

App vaccination1

APP Vaccination

  • Newer vaccines

    • Capsular deficient mutant (MLV): BINOBL

      • Given IM

      • Frozen product: order, shipped on dry ice, use immediately

      • Limited replication at injection site

      • Sufficient production of ApX toxins to induce a protective immune response

    • Riboflavin deficient mutant

      • Not commercially available

      • Knock out riboflavin synthetase

      • Add riboflavin to organism and inject IM

App treatment plan

APP Treatment Plan

  • Antibiotics

    • YES!! ASAP


      • Water

      • Feed

    • Duration of treatment

  • Ventilation

  • Vaccination ?

  • Different source of pigs

Actinobacillus suis

Actinobacillus suis

Actinobacillus suis1

Actinobacillus suis

  • Will behave like APP but less severe and short term

  • Problem with “healthier” herds

  • Generalized septicemia like H. parasuis, erysipelas

  • Produces Type I hemolysin

  • No commercial vaccines available

  • Autogenous vaccines used in refractory cases

A suis treatment plan

A. suis Treatment Plan

  • Antibiotics

    • APP vs A. suis need immediate action

    • Sources

      • Injectable

      • Water

      • Feed ???

  • Correct diagnosis is critical

  • Vaccination with autogenous??

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurella multocida pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida Pneumonia

  • Not a primary cause of pneumonia

    • Experimental infection only with active M. hyo infection present

    • “Fuzzy thinking”: not important because secondary pathogen but primary causes are nearly always present!!

      • Medication of pigs with non-App pneumonia is mostly directed at P. multocida

        • Acute swine influenza outbreaks

        • Enzootic pneumonia or PRDC

        • Environmental mishaps

Pasteurella multocida pneumonia1

Pasteurella multocida Pneumonia

  • Little known about pathogenesis

    • Studies just beginning

    • Generally Type A, non-AR toxin producing

    • Normal inhabitant of upper airways

  • Can cause pleuritis

  • Diagnosis

    • Culture and sensitivity

    • Sort out primary causes

P multocida treatment plan

P. multocida Treatment Plan

  • Antibiotics

    • Injectable

    • Water

    • Feed

  • Environment – Ventilation

  • Address other diseases

    • PRRS

    • Mycoplasma

    • Etc.

Atrophic rhinitis ar

Atrophic Rhinitis(AR)

Atrophic rhinitis

Atrophic Rhinitis

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica

    • Causes atrophic rhinitis

    • Enables P. multocida to colonize nasal epithelium

  • Pasteurella multocida

    • Causes progressive atrophic rhinitis

    • Produces AR toxin (dermatonecrotoxin)

      • Highly potent: inject small quantity  turbinate atrophy

    • Mainly capsular Type D but also Type A

Atrophic rhinitis1

Atrophic Rhinitis

  • Clinical signs

    • Deviated snout: side ways or pushed up

    • Tear staining at medial canthus

    • Sneezing

    • Bleeding from nostrils

  • Lesions

    • Turbinate atrophy: primarily ventral scroll of ventral turbinate

    • Septal deviation

Atrophic rhinitis2

Atrophic Rhinitis

Atrophic rhinitis3

Atrophic Rhinitis

  • Severity influenced by:

    • Air quality and environment; especially in nurseries

    • Genetics

      • Yorkshires more susceptible to developing severe lesions

    • Age of sow herd: immunity of dams

      • Colostral antibody levels

      • Level of shedding  vertical transmission

      • Age at infection

    • Weaning age: <14 days eliminates vertical transmission

Atrophic rhinitis4

Atrophic Rhinitis

  • Stepwise approach

    • Sow vaccination pre-farrowing

      • Gilts pre-breeding is always recommended

    • LA200 (200 mg/ml oxytetracycline) to piglets

      • 15 mg/# dose

      • 1, 7, 14, 21 days or 1, 7-10, weaning

    • Naxcel (2 mg/# dose) instead of LA200

      • No benefit against Bordetella bronchiseptica

    • Vaccinate pigs

      • Two doses: 7 days and weaning

      • One dose: weaning

Ar treatment plan

AR Treatment Plan

  • Antibiotics

    • Water

    • Feed

    • Injectable

  • Prevention

    • Antibiotics

    • Vaccination

  • Environment

Psuedorabies aujesky s or prv

Psuedorabies(Aujesky’s or PRV)

Pseudorabies virus

Pseudorabies Virus

  • Eradicated from the USA commercial herds in late 2003 to early 2004

  • Respiratory disease in any age pigs in addition to CNS signs in neonates and reproductive disease in sows

  • Occasional necrotic rhinitis  crusty nose and nasal discharge

  • Important rule-out (along with SIV and PRRS) for sow herd off-feed

    • Will have fever

Prv vaccination

PRV Vaccination

  • Vaccines were highly effective

  • Regulatory based vaccination in Stage II areas

    • Vaccinated sow herd 4 times per year- IM

    • Vaccinated pigs once IM by 12 weeks of age

  • In herds with active infections

    • Vaccinated pigs at birth intra-nasally

      • Used vaccines that were approved for IN use, must replicate in the nasal epithelium to be effective

    • Vaccinated pigs twice IM

  • Vaccine reduced shedding in individual pigs

    • Can stop shedding on a population basis

Prv eradication

PRV Eradication

  • Blanket vaccination to reduce/eliminate shedding and transmission

  • Improve internal biosecurity

    • AIAO production

    • People, equipment movement

  • Improve external biosecurity

    • Hog truck sanitation

  • Monitor closely via serology to determine where failure (active infection) is occurring

Other viruses

Other Viruses

Other viruses1

Other Viruses

  • PRCV

    • Mild respiratory disease in young pigs

    • Natural deletion mutant of TGE virus

      • Can’t attach to intestinal epithelium

    • Significance ?????

      • Test cross reacts with TGE

  • Inclusion body rhinitis

    • Porcine cytomegalovirus

    • Common disease in early nursery pigs

    • High pitched sneezing

    • Minimal clinical impact if no other problems

    • Severely affected will develop necrotic rhinitis

Other bacteria

Other bacteria

Other bacteria1

Other bacteria

  • Will be discussed in other sections

  • Salmonella cholerasuis

    • Interstitial pneumonia – Wet lung

    • Septicemia – purple pigs

    • +/- diarrhea

  • Steptococcus suis

    • Cranioventral consolidation

  • Haemophilus parasuis

Agents discussed in future

Agents Discussed in future

Swine influenza siv

Swine Influenza(SIV)

Swine influenza virus siv

Swine Influenza Virus (SIV)

  • Type A influenza virus

  • H1N1: traditional strain in US

  • H3N2: new strain in US 1998

    • Present in Europe for many years

    • Some evidence for presence in US before

    • Spread throughout country in 2-3 years

  • H1N2: Detected in Indiana 1999

    • Combination of H1N1 and H3N2

  • Others: Exposure to water fowl  outbreak limited to a one or a few herds

Swine influenza virus siv1

Swine Influenza Virus (SIV)

  • Clinical signs

    • Short term disease: <4-7 days

    • Fever: variable

    • Respiratory signs: 1-2 days after challenge

      • Increased rate

      • “Thumps”: abdominal breathing

      • “Wet Cough”: minimal with pure infection

  • Gross lesions

    • Look like M. hyo

Answer siv

Answer: SIV

Siv vaccination

SIV Vaccination

  • Strains: H1N1 (traditional), H3N2 (new)

  • Sow herd vaccination: common, concerns?

  • Pig vaccination

    • Two doses recommended, often one dose given

    • Relatively high cost

    • Multivalent vaccines and/or autogenous

    • Role of maternal antibody interference

      • Vaccinate sows pre-farrowing  protective titers until 12 weeks of age

      • MDA’s may interfere until 8-10 weeks of age  small time frame to vaccinate

    • Original antigenic sin

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus prrs

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRS)

Discussed in another lecture

Circovirus pcv2 pcvad

Circovirus(PCV2 & PCVAD)

See Dr. Baker’s Lecture

Porcine circovirus type ii

Porcine Circovirus Type II

  • Type I: cause of infectious congenital tremors?; porcine cell line contaminant

  • Type II: Cause of PCVAD (Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease); old name = PMWS (post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome)

    • Depletion of germinal centers in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches are characteristic lesions

      • Much virus located in these tissues

      • Virus also present in normal pigs and tissues

      • Lesions like PRRS

    • Disease in US: PRRS associated, mild, older pigs

    • Disease in Europe: devastating, younger animals

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control


  • Small DNA virus none-enveloped

    • Hard to disinfect

  • Present in most pigs

    • Exposure is VERY common

    • Negative herds ???

  • Concern with present case definition (PMWS/PCVAD)

    • Wasting

    • Lymphoid depletion

    • PCV2

  • Excellent web site  www.pcv2.org



  • Just on the market in 2006

  • In Europe have had a vaccine from Merial but for sows only!

  • ISU involved in development of one vaccine (chimeric with Fort Dodge)

  • Results?

    • So far looking VERY PROMISSING!

Pcv vaccines

PCV Vaccines

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

PCVAD is usually seen in 4-10 week old pigs in Canada and Europe

PCVAD is typically seen in the 10-20 week old pigs in the US

-Morbidity 2-25%

-Mortality 1-10%

Courtesy Dr. J. Harding

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

Markedly enlarged inguinal lymph nodes are commonly observed in pigs with PCVAD

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS)

Etiology unknown




P. multocida

Streptococcus sp.

Vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

PCV2 coinfections in 484 U.S. field cases: ISU-VDL









Number of Cases














PCV2 Alone

PCV2+M. hyo.

PCV2+ Others


PCV2+SIV +M.hyo.


PCV2+PRRSV +M.hyo.

PCV2+Bacterial pneumonia

PCV2+Bacterial septicemia

Rarely see PCV2 singular infection

Pcv2 treatment plan

PCV2 Treatment Plan

  • Vaccination

    • Earlier the better

  • Work on co-infections!



  • I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation:

    • Dr. Brad Thacker

    • Dr. Locke Karriker

    • Dr. Pat Halbur


Questions ?

  • Login